Skip to main content

Chemotherapy and adverse cardiovascular events in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection

Abstract

Background

Colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection are at increased short-term risk of post-operative adverse events. However, specific predictors for long-term major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) are unclear. We hypothesised that patients who receive chemotherapy are at higher risk of MACCE than those who did not.

Methods

In this retrospective study, 412 patients who underwent surgical resection for newly diagnosed colorectal cancer from January 2013 to April 2015 were grouped according to chemotherapy status. MACCE was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unplanned revascularisation, hospitalisation for heart failure or angina. Predictors of MACCE were identified using competing risks regression, with non-cardiovascular death a competing risk.

Results

There were 200 patients in the chemotherapy group and 212 patients in the non-chemotherapy group. The overall prevalence of prior cardiovascular disease was 20.9%. Over a median follow-up duration of 5.1 years from diagnosis, the incidence of MACCE was 13.3%. Diabetes mellitus and prior cardiovascular disease were associated with an increased risk of MACCE (subdistribution hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.48-4.42) and 2.38 (95% CI, 1.36-4.18) respectively. The chemotherapy group was associated with a lower risk of MACCE (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.19-0.75) compared to the non-chemotherapy group.

Conclusions

Amongst colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection, there was a high incidence of MACCE. Diabetes mellitus and prior cardiovascular disease were associated with an increased risk of MACCE. Chemotherapy was associated with a lower risk of MACCE, but further research is required to clarify this association.

Introduction

As colorectal cancer survival continues to improve, the burden of cardiovascular disease has similarly increased amongst survivors [1]. Colorectal cancer patients are associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and heart failure compared to non-cancer controls [2]. The risk of myocardial infarction and stroke specifically has been reported to be twofold higher than in non-cancer controls [3]. This elevated risk also extends to colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection, where such patients are at increased risk of short-term myocardial infarction and mortality [4, 5].

Colorectal cancer patients are potentially at high cardiovascular risk when undergoing colorectal surgery. This is due to the presence of multiple shared cardiovascular risk factors, chronic inflammation from cancer, and well-established cardio-toxic effects of the chemotherapy regimens comprising of anti-metabolite regimens such as 5-fluorouracil or its pro-drug capecitabine [6]. Although recent guidelines have attempted to address cardiovascular care during cancer treatment, there remains no specific guidance for the patient undergoing cancer surgery [7]. Existing studies examining post-operative outcomes were either not specific to colorectal cancer surgery, or focused mainly on short-term mortality outcomes. These studies also did not account for the potential effect of chemotherapy on outcomes [4, 5].

As such, our objectives were to identify risk factors predictive of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection. We hypothesised that in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection, those who received chemotherapy would be associated with an increased risk of MACCE than those who did not receive chemotherapy.

Methods

This retrospective cohort study was conducted at the National University Hospital Singapore, a tertiary university hospital centre. Consecutive patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer from January 2013 to April 2015 were included for analysis. Study participants were observed until the diagnosis of death or until the last day of follow-up on 31 May 2019. This study was approved by the local ethics review board (Domain Specific Review Board-C, National Healthcare Group 2017/00631).

Data collection

Individual patient-level data was collected via the hospital medical electronic health records system. Demographic characteristics collected included age at time of cancer diagnosis, sex, ethnicity, body mass index and family history of cancer. Cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking status, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and family history of cardiovascular disease were recorded. Details on relevant medical co-morbidities such as atrial fibrillation, prior cardiovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, chronic kidney disease and current medications were collected. The Charlson co-morbidity index was calculated for each patient. Cancer characteristics including site, grade, staging, histology and the use of radiotherapy or chemotherapy were collected.

End points

Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) was defined a priori as a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or transient ischaemic attack, unplanned revascularisation, hospitalisation for heart failure and hospitalisation for unstable angina. Other endpoints of interest included new-onset atrial fibrillation and non-cardiac death. All events were defined according to the Standardised Data Collection for Cardiovascular Trials Initiative [8]. Cardiovascular disease was defined as the presence of ischaemic heart disease, stroke or peripheral arterial disease based on electronic records. Clinical event data was collected by a member of the research team blinded to the patient’s cancer and chemotherapy status. These were further adjudicated by a separate member of the team similarly blinded to the patient’s cancer and chemotherapy status.

Statistical analysis

The patients were divided according to their chemotherapy status. Those who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy were assigned to the chemotherapy group, and those who did not receive chemotherapy at any stage of treatment were assigned to the non-chemotherapy group. Categorical risk factors were summarised using frequencies and percentages, and compared between the two groups via the Fisher’s exact test. Continuous covariates such as age and body mass index were summarised using mean and standard deviation and compared using the Student’s t test. Cumulative incidence curves were constructed and compared between the chemotherapy and non-chemotherapy groups using the competing risks method for MACCE [9], accounting for non-cardiovascular death as a competing risk, with adjustment for potential confounders made using the competing risks regression [10]. All analyses were generated using STATA v. 16 (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA), assuming a two-sided test at a 5% level of significance.

Results

Baseline characteristics

Between January 2013 and April 2015, data from 412 eligible patients (mean age 64.9 years) were analysed. There were 200 patients who received chemotherapy (chemotherapy group) and 212 patients who did not receive chemotherapy (non-chemotherapy group). The chemotherapy group was significantly younger than the non-chemotherapy group. The baseline demographics and clinical characteristics are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Patient demographics and clinical characteristics

In the overall cohort, 65.3% of patients had at least three cardiovascular risk factors. The chemotherapy group had a lower overall prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, and a lower prevalence of hypertension than the non-chemotherapy group. The prevalence of diabetes in both groups was similar, and the mean HbA1c was 6.94% in the chemotherapy group and 6.80% in the non-chemotherapy group (p = 0.59). The chemotherapy group had a lower Charlson comorbidity index score than the non-chemotherapy group. The prevalence of prior cardiovascular disease within the overall cohort was more than 20%, and was significantly lower in the chemotherapy group. Fewer patients in the chemotherapy group had a prior myocardial infarction or stroke, and chronic kidney disease.

Cancer and clinical details

The oncological details are listed in Table 1. The chemotherapy group had a higher tumour, node, and metastasis stage, and a higher overall tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage accordingly. The chemotherapy group had a higher tumour histological grade and positive resection margins. Approximately more than 10% of patients received radiotherapy. Within the chemotherapy group, 77.2% of patients received capecitabine-based regimens whilst the remaining 22.8% received 5-fluorouracil-based regimens.

The medications prescribed at discharge are listed in Table 2. Fewer patients in the chemotherapy group were prescribed with aspirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. However, there was no significant difference in anti-coagulation, beta-blockers or statins prescribed between the two groups. There was no difference in diabetic medications prescribed between the two groups.

Table 2 Discharge medications

Follow-up and clinical outcomes

Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 55 patients (13.3%) experienced MACCE, including 6 cardiovascular deaths, 29 non-fatal myocardial infarctions, 13 non-fatal strokes, 7 unplanned revascularisations, 13 hospitalisations for heart failure, and 9 hospitalisations for unstable angina (Table 3). The cumulative incidence of MACCE is shown in Fig. 1. The crude cumulative incidence of MACCE was significantly lower in the chemotherapy group than the non-chemotherapy group (3-year estimate, 4.0% versus 13.7%; p < 0.001). The crude cumulative incidence for non-cardiovascular death was higher in the chemotherapy group than the non-chemotherapy group, though it did not reach statistical significance (3-year estimate, 12.7% versus 19.5%; p = 0.122). The majority of non-cardiovascular deaths were attributed to death from the index cancer. There was no difference between the groups in terms of incident new atrial fibrillation. As part of an exploratory analysis, after excluding all patients with prior cardiovascular disease (n = 86), the crude cumulative incidence of MACCE remained lower in the chemotherapy group (3-year estimate 3.0% versus 8.0%; p = 0.005).

Table 3 MACCE events and other outcomes of interest
Fig. 1
figure1

Cumulative incidence of MACCE and non-cardiovascular mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves showing the cumulative incidence of MACCE and non-cardiovascular mortality in the chemotherapy group (red) and the non-chemotherapy group (blue). MACCE, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events

Post-operatively, there was no significant difference in complications including major bleeding, anastomotic leak or re-operation between the two groups. There was also no significant difference in post-operative glucose concentration between the two groups. The mean post-operative glucose concentration was 8.82 ± 2.57 mmol/L in the chemotherapy group and 8.91 ± 2.54 mmol/L in the no chemotherapy group (p = 0.755).

Through bivariate analysis as shown in Table 4, age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, prior cardiovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, chronic kidney disease, greater number of cardiovascular risk factors and a higher Charlson co-morbidity index were significantly associated with an increased incidence of MACCE. The use of chemotherapy was strongly associated with a lower incidence of MACCE.

Table 4 Bivariate analysis of MACCE

Using a competing risks regression model with non-cardiovascular mortality as the competing risk (Table 5), the association between prior cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus with MACCE remained statistically significant even after adjusting for age. The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with the highest risk of MACCE (subdistribution hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.42). Chemotherapy was conversely associated with a lower risk of MACCE (subdistribution hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.75).

Table 5 Significant predictors of MACCE via competing risks regression model

Discussion

This study provides insights into the predictors of MACCE in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing surgical resection. There was a high prevalence of prior cardiovascular disease at 20.9%, and the overall incidence of MACCE over a median follow-up period of 5.1 years was high at 13.3%. Diabetes mellitus and prior cardiovascular disease were associated with an increased risk of MACCE (subdistribution hazard ratio, 2.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-4.42 and subdistribution hazard ratio 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-4.18, respectively). After adjusting for non-cardiovascular death as a competing risk, chemotherapy was associated with a lower risk of MACCE.

Diabetes is an established cardiovascular risk factor and is closely associated with adverse cardiovascular events [11]. Diabetes has also been associated with higher risk of mortality in colorectal cancer patients [12]. However, the association of diabetes with peri-operative cardiac events specific to colon cancer resection is mainly equivocal [13, 14]. Prior studies have shown diabetes was associated with both higher and lower short-term mortality, and also lacked longer-term follow-up and cardiovascular outcomes [5, 15,16,17]. Our results suggest that diabetes is associated with an increased longer-term risk of MACCE post-surgical resection for colorectal cancer. This is consistent with the recognised impact of diabetes on long-term post-operative cardiovascular outcomes [18].

Unlike the expected association of prior cardiovascular disease with an increased risk of MACCE, our finding of chemotherapy being associated with a lower risk of MACCE is admittedly counterintuitive. This is despite the well-recognised association of 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine with ischaemia and coronary vasospasm [6]. Although this finding could be attributed to unidentified confounders, we attempted to adjust for as many variables as possible including non-cardiac death as a competing risk. Nevertheless, some studies have observed a similar trend, including a recent study showing no increase in cardiovascular-related hospitalisations in metastatic colorectal cancer patients with anti-cancer therapy [2, 19, 20]. However, further prospective studies are required to determine the association of chemotherapy with MACCE in this patient population.

Our study results may have several potential clinical implications. Firstly, the high risk of MACCE in an increasing population of colorectal cancer survivors highlights the need for improved primary and secondary cardiovascular disease prevention in a previously neglected patient population [21]. Despite the higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cancer, these are often sub-optimally controlled [22]. Healthcare providers tend to offer less counselling on health behaviours to cancer survivors [23]. This is also evident within our study population where the use of anti-platelets and statins were far below the observed prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Secondly, specific guidelines for pre-operative cardiac assessment for cancer surgery may be of benefit. Although guidelines for pre-operative cardiac assessment for non-cardiac surgery exist, cardiac assessment in the cancer patient is more complex due to their increased baseline risk of adverse cardiac events, cardio-toxic effects from cancer therapies, as well as the added complexity of any revascularisation in relation to a potentially time-sensitive curative resection [24,25,26]. Existing pre-operative cardiac risk assessment scores do not account for these variables and hence are not individualised to the patient with colorectal cancer undergoing surgery [13, 27]. Such patients may benefit from a cardio-oncology consult, which has gained recognition in recent years. Cardio-oncology consultation has been beneficial in optimising cardiac function and cancer therapy outcomes, and through a structured pre-operative cardio-oncological assessment prior to cancer surgery may improve post-operative outcomes [28].

The strength of this study is in our longer-term follow-up compared to other studies mainly limited to short-term post-operative outcomes. Moreover, our outcomes on adverse cardiovascular events beyond mortality alone are increasingly important given the improved survival and the high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality within colorectal cancer survivors. Our study also attempted to examine for the effects of chemotherapy on cardiovascular outcomes post-surgery. There are several limitations of our study. First, although we attempted to identify as many potential confounders as possible, there may be unidentified confounders due to the retrospective design of this study. Data such as electrocardiographic or echocardiographic parameters were not available in all patients, although there was no difference in left ventricular ejection fraction between the two groups when comparing available echocardiographic data. Second, data on the route and schedule of 5-fluorouracil administration was not available, which has been shown to vary in incidence of cardio-toxicity [29]. Third, although we collected information on body mass indices, we did not have data available on visceral adiposity and muscle radio-density which have been shown to be associated with increased risk of MACCE in colorectal cancer patients [30]. Lastly, although data on diabetes including medications and glucose concentrations were available, data on diabetic complications was not available which has been associated with adverse post-operative outcomes in colorectal cancer surgery instead of diabetes itself [31].

Conclusion

In patients with colorectal cancer undergoing surgical resection, there was a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and prior cardiovascular disease. There was a high incidence of MACCE which extended beyond the immediate post-operative period. Diabetes mellitus and prior cardiovascular disease were independently associated with a higher risk of MACCE. Chemotherapy may be associated with a lower risk of MACCE, although prospective studies are required. Further research is needed to better risk stratify and manage colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection to improve cardiovascular outcomes.

Availability of data and materials

The datasets used and analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

References

  1. 1.

    Zaorsky NG, Churilla TM, Egleston BL, Fisher SG, Ridge JA, Horwitz EM, et al. Causes of death among cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2017;28(2):400–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kenzik KM, Balentine C, Richman J, Kilgore M, Bhatia S, Williams GR. New-onset cardiovascular morbidity in older adults with stage I to III colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(6):609–16.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Navi BB, Reiner AS, Kamel H, Iadecola C, Okin PM, Elkind MSV, et al. Risk of arterial thromboembolism in patients with cancer. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(8):926–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Moghadamyeghaneh Z, Mills SD, Carmichael JC, Pigazzi A, Stamos MJ. Risk factors of postoperative myocardial infarction after colorectal surgeries. Am Surg. 2015;81(4):358–64.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Masoomi H, Kang CY, Chen A, Mills S, Dolich MO, Carmichael JC, Stamos MJ. Predictive factors of in-hospital mortality in colon and rectal surgery. J Am Coll Surg. 2012;215(2):255–61.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Chang HM, Moudgil R, Scarabelli T, Okwuosa TM, Yeh ETH. Cardiovascular complications of cancer therapy: best practices in diagnosis, prevention, and management: Part 1. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(20):2536–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Curigliano G, Lenihan D, Fradley M, Ganatra S, Barac A, Blaes A, Herrmann J, Porter C, Lyon AR, Lancellotti P, Patel A, DeCara J, Mitchell J, Harrison E, Moslehi J, Witteles R, Calabro MG, Orecchia R, de Azambuja E, Zamorano JL, Krone R, Iakobishvili Z, Carver J, Armenian S, Ky B, Cardinale D, Cipolla CM, Dent S, Jordan K, ESMO Guidelines Committee. Electronic address: clinicalguidelines@esmo.org. Management of cardiac disease in cancer patients throughout oncological treatment: ESMO consensus recommendations. Ann Oncol. 2020;31(2):171–90.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Hicks KA, Mahaffey KW, Mehran R, Nissen SE, Wiviott SD, Dunn B, et al. 2017 Cardiovascular and Stroke Endpoint Definitions for Clinical Trials. Circulation. 2018;137(9):961–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Tai BC, Machin D, White I, Gebski V. Competing risks analysis of patients with osteosarcoma: a comparison of four different approaches. Stat Med. 2001;20(5):661–84.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Tai BC, Grundy R, Machin D. On the importance of accounting for competing risks in pediatric brain cancer: II. Regression modeling and sample size. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79(4):1139–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Cosentino F, Grant PJ, Aboyans V, Bailey CJ, Ceriello A, Delgado V, Federici M, Filippatos G, Grobbee DE, Hansen TB, Huikuri HV, Johansson I, Jüni P, Lettino M, Marx N, Mellbin LG, Östgren CJ, Rocca B, Roffi M, Sattar N, Seferović PM, Sousa-Uva M, Valensi P. Wheeler DC; ESC Scientific Document Group. 2019 ESC Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases developed in collaboration with the EASD. Eur Heart J. 2020;41(2):255–323.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Bjornsdottir HH, Rawshani A, Rawshani A, Franzén S, Svensson AM, Sattar N, Gudbjörnsdottir S. A national observation study of cancer incidence and mortality risks in type 2 diabetes compared to the background population over time. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):17376.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Lee TH, Marcantonio ER, Mangione CM, Thomas EJ, Polanczyk CA, Cook EF, Sugarbaker DJ, Donaldson MC, Poss R, Ho KK, Ludwig LE, Pedan A, Goldman L. Derivation and prospective validation of a simple index for prediction of cardiac risk of major noncardiac surgery. Circulation. 1999;100(10):1043–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Barone BB, Yeh HC, Snyder CF, Peairs KS, Stein KB, Derr RL, Wolff AC, Brancati FL. Postoperative mortality in cancer patients with preexisting diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(4):931–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Anand N, Chong CA, Chong RY, Nguyen GC. Impact of diabetes on postoperative outcomes following colon cancer surgery. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(8):809–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Yap R, Wilkins S, Staples M, Oliva K, McMurrick PJ. The effect of diabetes on the perioperative outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery patients. PLoS One. 2016;11(12):e0167271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Fransgaard T, Thygesen LC, Gögenur I. Increased 30-day mortality in patients with diabetes undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer. Colorectal Dis. 2016;18(1):O22–9.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Farkouh ME, Domanski M, Dangas GD, Godoy LC, Mack MJ, Siami FS, Hamza TH, Shah B, Stefanini GG, Sidhu MS, Tanguay JF, Ramanathan K, Sharma SK, French J, Hueb W, Cohen DJ, Fuster V, FREEDOM Follow-On Study Investigators. Long-term survival following multivessel revascularization in patients with diabetes: the FREEDOM follow-on study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;73(6):629–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Budczies J, von Winterfeld M, Klauschen F, Kimmritz AC, Daniel JM, Warth A, et al. Comprehensive analysis of clinico-pathological data reveals heterogeneous relations between atherosclerosis and cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2014;67(6):482–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Dolladille C, Launoy G, Bouvier V, Salem JE, Legallois D, Milliez P, Sassier M, Lobbedez T, Guittet L, Alexandre J. Anticancer drugs and cardiovascular-related hospitalization in metastatic colorectal cancer: insights from the AVOCETTE population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 2020. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa203.

  21. 21.

    Lyon AR, Dent S, Stanway S, Earl H, Brezden-Masley C, Cohen-Solal A, Tocchetti CG, Moslehi JJ, Groarke JD, Bergler-Klein J, Khoo V, Tan LL, Anker MS, von Haehling S, Maack C, Pudil R, Barac A, Thavendiranathan P, Ky B, Neilan TG, Belenkov Y, Rosen SD, Iakobishvili Z, Sverdlov AL, Hajjar LA, AVS M, Manisty C, Ciardiello F, Farmakis D, de Boer RA, Skouri H, Suter TM, Cardinale D, Witteles RM, Fradley MG, Herrmann J, Cornell RF, Wechelaker A, Mauro MJ, Milojkovic D, de Lavallade H, Ruschitzka F, AJS C, Seferovic PM, Chioncel O, Thum T, Bauersachs J, Andres MS, Wright DJ, López-Fernández T, Plummer C, Lenihan D. Baseline cardiovascular risk assessment in cancer patients scheduled to receive cardiotoxic cancer therapies: a position statement and new risk assessment tools from the Cardio-Oncology Study Group of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology in collaboration with the International Cardio-Oncology Society. Eur J Heart Fail. 2020;22(11):1945–60.

  22. 22.

    Enright KA, Krzyzanowska MK. Control of cardiovascular risk factors among adult cancer survivors: a population-based survey. Cancer Causes Control. 2010;21(11):1867–74.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Sabatino SA, Coates RJ, Uhler RJ, Pollack LA, Alley LG, Zauderer LJ. Provider counseling about health behaviors among cancer survivors in the United States. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(15):2100–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Kristensen SD, Knuuti J, Saraste A, Anker S, Bøtker HE, Hert SD, Ford I, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, Gorenek B, Heyndrickx GR, Hoeft A, Huber K, Iung B, Kjeldsen KP, Longrois D, Lüscher TF, Pierard L, Pocock S, Price S, Roffi M, Sirnes PA, Sousa-Uva M, Voudris V, Funck-Brentano C, Authors/Task Force Members. 2014 ESC/ESA Guidelines on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management: the Joint Task Force on non-cardiac surgery: cardiovascular assessment and management of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA). Eur Heart J. 2014;35(35):2383–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Fleisher LA, Fleischmann KE, Auerbach AD, Barnason SA, Beckman JA, Bozkurt B, Davila-Roman VG, Gerhard-Herman MD, Holly TA, Kane GC, Marine JE, Nelson MT, Spencer CC, Thompson A, Ting HH, Uretsky BF, Wijeysundera DN. 2014 ACC/AHA guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;130(24):e278–333.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Killian JT, Holcomb CN, Graham LA, Richman JS, Hawn MT. Delays in surgery for patients with coronary stents placed after diagnosis of colorectal cancer. JAMA Surg. 2016;151(1):86–8.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Leung E, McArdle K, Wong LS. Risk-adjusted scoring systems in colorectal surgery. Int J Surg. 2011;9(2):130–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Pareek N, Cevallos J, Moliner P, Shah M, Tan LL, Chambers V, Baksi AJ, Khattar RS, Sharma R, Rosen SD, Lyon AR. Activity and outcomes of a cardio-oncology service in the United Kingdom-a five-year experience. Eur J Heart Fail. 2018;20(12):1721–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Kosmas C, Kallistratos MS, Kopterides P, Syrios J, Skopelitis H, Mylonakis N, et al. Cardiotoxicity of fluoropyrimidines in different schedules of administration: a prospective study. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2008;134:75.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Brown JC, Caan BJ, Prado CM, Weltzien E, Xiao J, Cespedes Feliciano EM, et al. Body composition and cardiovascular events in patients with colorectal cancer: a population-based retrospective cohort study. JAMA Oncol. 2019;5(7):967–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Birch RJ, Downing A, Finan PJ, Howell S, Ajjan RA, Morris EJA. Improving outcome prediction in individuals with colorectal cancer and diabetes by accurate assessment of vascular complications: implications for clinical practice. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2020;S0748-7983(20):30870–2.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

Nil.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by CYK, BCT, DKHC and LLT. The first draft of the manuscript was written by CYK and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chieh Yang Koo.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

This study was approved by the local ethics review board (Domain Specific Review Board-C, National Healthcare Group 2017/00631) which waived the need for patient consent.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Koo, C.Y., Tai, BC., Chan, D.K.H. et al. Chemotherapy and adverse cardiovascular events in colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgical resection. World J Surg Onc 19, 21 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12957-021-02125-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cardio-toxicity
  • Cancer survivors
  • Coronary artery disease
  • Cardio-oncology
  • Preventive medicine