Depletion of thymopoietin inhibits proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest/apoptosis in glioblastoma cells
- Lin Zhang†1,
- Gan Wang1,
- Shiwen Chen1,
- Jun Ding†1,
- Shiming Ju1,
- Heli Cao1 and
- Hengli Tian1Email author
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 1 April 2016
Accepted: 4 October 2016
Published: 19 October 2016
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant nervous system tumor with an almost 100 % recurrence rate. Thymopoietin (TMPO) has been demonstrated to be upregulated in various tumors, including lung cancer, breast cancer, and so on, but its role in GBM has not been reported. This study was aimed to determine the role of TMPO in GBM.
Publicly available Oncomine dataset analysis was used to explore the expression level of TMPO in GBM specimens. Then the expression of TMPO was knocked down in GBM cells using lentiviral system, and the knockdown efficacy was further validated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. Furthermore, the effects of TMPO silencing on GBM cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by MTT, colony formation, and flow cytometry analysis. Meanwhile, the expression of apoptotic markers caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were investigated by western blot analysis.
This study observed that the expression of TMPO in GBM specimens was remarkably higher than that in normal brain specimens. Moreover, knockdown of TMPO could significantly inhibit cell proliferation and arrest cell cycle progression at the G2/M phase. It also found that TMPO knockdown promoted cell apoptosis by upregulation of the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP protein levels which are the markers of apoptosis.
The results suggested TMPO might be a novel therapeutic target for GBM.
KeywordsTMPO Glioblastoma Cell proliferation Apoptosis
Glioblastoma (GBM) (World Health Organization grade IV astrocytoma) is the most frequent and most malignant brain tumor. The standard therapy method for newly diagnosed GBM is surgery followed by radiotherapy plus temozolomide chemotherapy . But the GBM is still along with a 100 % recurrence rate and about a 5 % 5-year survival rate [2, 3]. Researchers are screening new drugs for GBM treatment, such as bevacizumab, which is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), but it cannot improve overall survival in patients with GBM; the adverse events such as increased symptom severity are more serious [4, 5]. So the development of new therapeutic targets is essential for GBM therapy.
Thymopoietin (TMPO) is also named as lamina-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2) and has six alternatively spliced isoforms with different functions . TMPO can interact with lamins and BAF to regulate the organization of the nuclear structure and the dynamics of the cell cycle . Recently, the role of TMPO in cancer biology has been reported . LAP2β is upregulated in the rapidly proliferating cells of various hematological malignancies but is normally expressed in the slowly proliferating cells of chronic malignant hematological diseases . LAP2β is upregulated in digestive tract tumor tissues and cells; its knockdown could inhibit migration, invasion, and metastasis but has no effect on cell proliferation. In pancreatic cancer cells, knockdown of LAP2β not only inhibits cell proliferation but also suppresses migration, invasion, and metastasis .
However, the role of TMPO in GBM has not been reported until now. In this study, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for TMPO was used to knock down TMPO in GBM cells and the MTT assay and colony formation assay were used to determine the effect of TMPO on cell proliferation. Finally, the approach of TMPO that regulated cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, or apoptosis was determined. In addition, the knockdown of TMPO reduced the cell proliferation rate caused by promoting apoptosis.
Data mining and Oncomine analysis
A series of microarray datasets for glioblastoma were retrieved from the public Oncomine cancer microarray database (www.oncomine.org) to investigate TMPO expression in glioblastoma . Differential expressions of TMPO between glioblastoma and normal tissues were retrieved from seven different databases, including French Brain , Liang Brain , Murat Brain , TCGA Brain (The Cancer Genome Atlas-Glioblastoma Multiforme Gene Expression Data, http://tcga-data.nci.nih.gov/tcga/), Shai Brain , Sun Brain , and Pomeroy Brain . The TMPO gene expression in glioblastoma was compared with normal brain tissues according to the previously described .
Cell lines and culture
GBM cells including U251 and U87 and human embryonic kidney cell line 293T were purchased from the Cell Bank of Chinese of Science (Shanghai, China). U251 was cultured in DMEM (SH30243.01B, HyClone, USA) supplemented with 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS, S1810, Biowest, Spain). U87 was cultured in EMEM (SH30024.01B, HyClone, USA) supplemented with FBS, 1 % PEP, and 1 % NEAA. 293T cells which were used to package lentivirus were cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10 % FBS. All cells were maintained in a humidified atmosphere at 37 °C with 5 % CO2.
Vector construction and virus infection
The sequences (S1: 5′-GCACAGATTCTTAGCTCAGAT-3′, S2: 5′-CTTGTGAAATACGGAGTGAAT-3′) were used as the target sequence to downregulate the TMPO (NM_003276.2) level, and shRNA oligos for TMPO were cloned into the pFH-L lentiviral vector (Hollybio, Shanghai, China) which carried green fluorescent protein (GFP) and were indicated as TMPO-shRNA and TMPO-shRNA(S2). The sequence (5′-TTCTCCGAACGTGTCACGT-3′) was used as a scramble control and cloned into the pFH-L vector (Con-shRNA). Then the shRNA plasmid and two pHelper plasmids pVSVG-I and pCMVΔR8.92 were co-transfected into 293T cells using the calcium phosphate transfection protocol. The viral supernatants were collected and filtered at 48 h after transfection. For lentivirus infection, U251 and U87 cells were seeded in six-well plates at a density of 7 × 104 cells/well and 5 × 104 cells/well, respectively. Subsequently, the lentiviruses containing TMPO-shRNA, TMPO-shRNA(S2), or Con-shRNA were transduced into U251 and U87 cells at 10 and 8 MOI (multiplicity of infection), respectively. After a 72-h infection, the infection efficiency was determined by observing the GFP expression under a fluorescence microscope.
RNA extraction and real-time quantitative PCR
Total RNA was extracted using RNAiso Plus reagent (Takara, Japan) according to the manufacturer’s instructions and synthesized into complementary DNA (cDNA) using HiScript 1st Strand cDNA Synthesis Kit (Vazyme, China). TMPO expression was quantified using HiScript® Q RT SuperMix for qPCR (Vazyme, China) in a BioRad Connet Real-Time PCR platform and performed in triplicates. Actin was used as an endogenous control for normalization. The relative expression of TMPO was calculated as using the 2−ΔΔCt method . Ct was the threshold cycle of each transcript. The real-time quantitative PCR primers were shown as follows: TMPO: forward, 5′-TGCTCGCCTCCTGCCTGTAG-3′ and reverse, 5′-GACACAAAGCCAAGCCAGACC-3′; Actin: forward, 5′-GTGGACATCCGCAAAGAC-3′ and reverse, 5′-AAAGGGTGTAACGCAACTA-3′.
Total protein was extracted from cells using RIPA buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl, at pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM EDTA, 0.1 % SDS, and 1 % NP-40). The protein samples (30 μg/well) were loaded and separated by 10 % SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Western blot was performed according to the previous report . Anti-TMPO (1:1000, 14651-1-AP, Proteintech, USA), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP;1:1000, #9542, Cell Signaling Technology, USA), and caspase-3 (1:500, Cell Signaling Technology, USA) antibodies were used. An anti-GAPDH antibody (1:500000, 10494-1-AP, Proteintech, USA) was used as the loading control. The secondary antibody used was horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody (1:5000, SC-2054, Santa Cruz, USA).
Cell proliferation analysis by MTT
After lentivirus infection for 72 h, a total density of 2500 cells/well for U251 cells or 3000 cells/well for U87 cells were reseeded in a 96-well plate. The cell viability was determined at five different timing points (days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5) using the MTT assay. Briefly, 20 μl of MTT (Sigma, USA) solution was added to the wells and incubated for 4 h at 37 °C. Then 100 μl acidic isopropanol solution (10 % SDS, 5 % isopropanol, and 0.0 1 mol/l HCl) was added and incubated overnight to solubilize the formazan. The optical density (OD) value was measured at 570 nm using a microplate reader (Epoch, BioTek, USA). All experiments were performed in triplicates.
Colony formation assay
Colony formation assay was carried out according to the previous report . Briefly, U251 cells stably transduced lentivirus were reseeded on six-well plates and cultured for 12 days at a density of 600 cells/well. Then colonies were fixed using 4 % paraformaldehyde for 5 min and then stained with 1 % crystal violet for 30 s. The cells were photographed, and the number of colonies was counted.
Flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle
After lentivirus infection for 5 days, a total density of 80,000 cells/dish for U251 cells were reseeded in 6-cm dishes and continued to culture for 72 h. Then cells were collected, washed with pre-cooling PBS, and fixed with cooling 70 % ethanol overnight at 4 °C. After washing twice with pre-cooling PBS, the cells were resuspended and incubated in 500 μl PBS containing 50 μg/ml propidium iodide solution (PI) and 100 μg/ml RNase for 30 min at room temperature. Finally, the cells were analyzed on a FACS Calibur cytometer (BD, USA). Data were analyzed using CellQuest software.
Apoptosis analysis was performed using the Annexin V-APC/7-AAD apoptosis kit (KeyGEN Biotech, Nanjing, China) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cells were analyzed on a FACS Calibur cytometer (BD, USA). Data were analyzed using CellQuest software.
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 19 (SPSS Inc., USA). Results are shown as the mean ± standard deviation (STDEV) for at least three repeated individual experiments for each group. Statistical differences were determined using Student’s t test for independent samples. p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
TMPO mRNA expression was elevated in glioblastoma
TMPO-shRNA could knock down TMPO effectively
Knockdown of TMPO inhibited cell proliferation
Knockdown of TMPO arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase
Knockdown of TMPO promoted cell apoptosis
To explore the role of related cell apoptotic molecules in the knockdown of TMPO-induced cell apoptosis, the effect of TMPO silencing on two classical cell apoptotic molecules caspase-3 and PARP was examined by western blot assay. Caspase-3 is a key executioner of apoptosis and can break many key proteins for apoptosis such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) [22, 23]. Cleavage of PARP is a marker for cell apoptosis . As shown in Fig. 5e, the expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP were remarkably increased once TMPO was knocked down. Taken together, the results suggested that TMPO knockdown in U251 cells promoted cell apoptosis due to the upregulation of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP expression.
In the present study, the role of TMPO in GBM was investigated and it was found that TMPO was overexpressed in GBM tissues. By knockdown of the TMPO expression, cell proliferation was suppressed by the MTT and colony formation assays. In addition, when TMPO was downregulated, the percentage of the S phase population did not change, the percentage of G0/G1 was significantly reduced, and the percentage of G2/M was significantly increased, which suggested that the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase after treatment with TMPO-shRNA. This might be because TMPO regulates nuclear assembly in the mitosis; knockdown of TMPO reduced the rate of nuclear assembly .
It has been demonstrated that there is a close relation between cell cycle arrest and DNA damage response [26, 27]. Accumulation of the G2/M phase population is prominently related with apoptosis . The finding that knockdown of TMPO induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase prompted us to examine whether apoptosis occurred in U251 cells. As expected, knockdown of TMPO significantly elevated the percentage of cells in early apoptotic and late apoptotic stages. Western blot further suggested knockdown of TMPO increased the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP expression. Caspase activation plays a critical role in apoptosis and is divided into two types: initiator caspases (caspases-2, 8, 9, 10) and effector caspases (caspases-3, 6, 7). Both the intrinsic pathway and the extrinsic pathway can activate initiator caspases; initiator caspases then cleave and activate effector caspases. Effector caspases subsequently cleave substrate proteins which are essential for cell survival, such as PARP [29, 30].
PARP is proteolysed by caspase-3 into two fragments, a 24-kDa DNA-binding fragment and an 89-kDa catalytic fragment . The cleavage of PARP is critical for apoptosis because it can prevent apoptosis induced by energy depletion and cell survival induced by DNA repair [31, 32]. The results further confirmed that TMPO knockdown promoted apoptosis. The new targets for GBM therapy are critical; inhibition of TMPO could induce apoptosis, suggesting it might be a novel target for GBM treatment.
This study found TMPO is significantly upregulated in GBM tissues. Functional analysis indicated that knockdown of TMPO suppressed GBM cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Although the precise mechanisms are not yet fully understood, this finding suggests that TMPO might play an important role in regulating the proliferation of glioma cells and serve as a new target for GBM treatment.
The authors thank the staff of the Department of Neurosurgery at Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital and School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, for their great support.
This project received seed funding grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 81271383, 81471245); the Shanghai Science and Technique Committee (grant no.13411951401); and the Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau project (grant no. 20114242). The provider of the financial support was not involved in the study design, collection, analysis, and interpretation of the data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Availability of data and materials
The authors wish to share their data on reasonable request.
LZ performed the vector construction experiments and drafted the manuscript. GW participated in the lentivirus package experiment. SWC and JD participated in the cellular function experiments. SMJ and HLC participated in the data analysis and figure format. HLT participated in the research design and reviewed the literature and the data mining. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, Weller M, Fisher B, Taphoorn MJ, Belanger K, Brandes AA, Marosi C, Bogdahn U, et al. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:987–96.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gallego O. Nonsurgical treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. Curr Oncol. 2015;22:e273–81.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Preusser M, Lim M, Hafler DA, Reardon DA, Sampson JH. Prospects of immune checkpoint modulators in the treatment of glioblastoma. Nat Rev Neurol. 2015;11:504–14.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Gilbert MR, Dignam JJ, Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Blumenthal DT, Vogelbaum MA, Colman H, Chakravarti A, Pugh S, Won M, et al. A randomized trial of bevacizumab for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:699–708.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chinot OL, Wick W, Mason W, Henriksson R, Saran F, Nishikawa R, Carpentier AF, Hoang-Xuan K, Kavan P, Cernea D, et al. Bevacizumab plus radiotherapy-temozolomide for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:709–22.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berger R, Theodor L, Shoham J, Gokkel E, Brok-Simoni F, Avraham KB, Copeland NG, Jenkins NA, Rechavi G, Simon AJ. The characterization and localization of the mouse thymopoietin/lamina-associated polypeptide 2 gene and its alternatively spliced products. Genome Res. 1996;6:361–70.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dechat T, Vlcek S, Foisner R. Review: lamina-associated polypeptide 2 isoforms and related proteins in cell cycle-dependent nuclear structure dynamics. J Struct Biol. 2000;129:335–45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brachner A, Foisner R. Lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP)2 alpha and other LEM proteins in cancer biology. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;773:143–63.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Somech R, Gal-Yam EN, Shaklai S, Geller O, Amariglio N, Rechavi G, Simon AJ. Enhanced expression of the nuclear envelope LAP2 transcriptional repressors in normal and malignant activated lymphocytes. Ann Hematol. 2007;86:393–401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim HJ, Hwang SH, Han ME, Baek S, Sim HE, Yoon S, Baek SY, Kim BS, Kim JH, Kim SY, Oh SO. LAP2 is widely overexpressed in diverse digestive tract cancers and regulates motility of cancer cells. PLoS One. 2012;7:e39482.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rhodes DR, Yu J, Shanker K, Deshpande N, Varambally R, Ghosh D, Barrette T, Pandey A, Chinnaiyan AM. ONCOMINE: a cancer microarray database and integrated data-mining platform. Neoplasia. 2004;6:1–6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- French PJ, Swagemakers SM, Nagel JH, Kouwenhoven MC, Brouwer E, van der Spek P, Luider TM, Kros JM, van den Bent MJ, Sillevis Smitt PA. Gene expression profiles associated with treatment response in oligodendrogliomas. Cancer Res. 2005;65:11335–44.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liang Y, Diehn M, Watson N, Bollen AW, Aldape KD, Nicholas MK, Lamborn KR, Berger MS, Botstein D, Brown PO, Israel MA. Gene expression profiling reveals molecularly and clinically distinct subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:5814–9.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Murat A, Migliavacca E, Gorlia T, Lambiv WL, Shay T, Hamou MF, de Tribolet N, Regli L, Wick W, Kouwenhoven MC, et al. Stem cell-related “self-renewal” signature and high epidermal growth factor receptor expression associated with resistance to concomitant chemoradiotherapy in glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:3015–24.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shai R, Shi T, Kremen TJ, Horvath S, Liau LM, Cloughesy TF, Mischel PS, Nelson SF. Gene expression profiling identifies molecular subtypes of gliomas. Oncogene. 2003;22:4918–23.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sun L, Hui AM, Su Q, Vortmeyer A, Kotliarov Y, Pastorino S, Passaniti A, Menon J, Walling J, Bailey R, et al. Neuronal and glioma-derived stem cell factor induces angiogenesis within the brain. Cancer Cell. 2006;9:287–300.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pomeroy SL, Tamayo P, Gaasenbeek M, Sturla LM, Angelo M, McLaughlin ME, Kim JY, Goumnerova LC, Black PM, Lau C, et al. Prediction of central nervous system embryonal tumour outcome based on gene expression. Nature. 2002;415:436–42.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rhodes DR, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Mahavisno V, Varambally R, Yu J, Briggs BB, Barrette TR, Anstet MJ, Kincead-Beal C, Kulkarni P, et al. Oncomine 3.0: genes, pathways, and networks in a collection of 18,000 cancer gene expression profiles. Neoplasia. 2007;9:166–80.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Livak KJ, Schmittgen TD. Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method. Methods. 2001;25:402–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Liang Q, Lei Y, Yao M, Li L, Gao X, Feng J, Zhang Y, Gao H, Liu DX, et al. SOX4 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and contributes to breast cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2012;72:4597–608.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shen G, Jia H, Tai Q, Li Y, Chen D. miR-106b downregulates adenomatous polyposis coli and promotes cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Carcinogenesis. 2013;34:211–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fernandes-Alnemri T, Litwack G, Alnemri ES. CPP32, a novel human apoptotic protein with homology to Caenorhabditis elegans cell death protein Ced-3 and mammalian interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:30761–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicholson DW, Ali A, Thornberry NA, Vaillancourt JP, Ding CK, Gallant M, Gareau Y, Griffin PR, Labelle M, Lazebnik YA, et al. Identification and inhibition of the ICE/CED-3 protease necessary for mammalian apoptosis. Nature. 1995;376:37–43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oliver FJ, de la Rubia G, Rolli V, Ruiz-Ruiz MC, de Murcia G, Murcia JM. Importance of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and its cleavage in apoptosis. Lesson from an uncleavable mutant. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:33533–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dechat T, Gotzmann J, Stockinger A, Harris CA, Talle MA, Siekierka JJ, Foisner R. Detergent-salt resistance of LAP2alpha in interphase nuclei and phosphorylation-dependent association with chromosomes early in nuclear assembly implies functions in nuclear structure dynamics. EMBO J. 1998;17:4887–902.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rieder CL. Mitosis in vertebrates: the G2/M and M/A transitions and their associated checkpoints. Chromosom Res. 2010;19:291–306.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Groth A, Rocha W, Verreault A, Almouzni G. Chromatin challenges during DNA replication and repair. Cell. 2007;128:721–33.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boonstra J, Post JA. Molecular events associated with reactive oxygen species and cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. Gene. 2004;337:1–13.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keoni CL, Brown TL. Inhibition of apoptosis and efficacy of pan caspase inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh, in models of human disease. J Cell Death. 2015;8:1–7.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- McIlwain DR, Berger T, Mak TW. Caspase functions in cell death and disease. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013;5:a008656.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- D’Amours D, Sallmann FR, Dixit VM, Poirier GG. Gain-of-function of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 upon cleavage by apoptotic proteases: implications for apoptosis. J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3771–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heeres JT, Hergenrother PJ. Poly(ADP-ribose) makes a date with death. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2007;11:644–53.Google Scholar