- Open Access
Solitary splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a case report and systematic review of the literature
© The Author(s). 2016
Received: 7 April 2016
Accepted: 8 July 2016
Published: 15 July 2016
Solitary splenic metastases are a rare occurrence, and the nasopharyngeal carcinoma represents one of the most uncommon primary sources. The present study aimed to describe a rare case of a solitary single splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and to assess the number of cases of isolated nasopharyngeal carcinoma metastases to the spleen reported in the literature.
We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and complete remission after chemo-radiotherapy. Three months after complete remission, positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan revealed a hypermetabolic splenic lesion without increased metabolic activity in other areas. After laparoscopic splenectomy, the pathology report confirmed a single splenic metastasis from undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type. The postoperative period was uneventful. We also performed a systematic review of the literature using MEDLINE and Google Scholar databases. All articles reporting cases of splenic metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with or without histologic confirmation, were evaluated. The literature search yielded 15 relevant articles, which were very heterogeneous in their aims and methods and described only 25 cases of splenic metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
The present review shows that solitary splenic metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma are a rare event, but it should be considered in patients presenting with splenic lesions at imaging and a history of primary or recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. No evidence supports a negative impact of splenectomy in patients with solitary splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Splenic metastases from non-hematologic malignancies are rare [1–4], but according to several studies, they can occur in cases of disseminated disease [5–7]. Their prevalence ranges from 0.6 %  to 7.1 %  in autopsy series of patients with cancer and from 1.1 %  to 3.4 %  in a series of patients who have undergone splenectomy.
The most frequent primary sources of splenic metastases from non-hematologic malignancies are breast, lung, ovarian, colorectal, and gastric adenocarcinomas, along with skin melanoma [3, 8, 10, 11]. By 2007, only 93 well-documented cases of solitary splenic metastases were reported , with colorectal and ovarian cancer being the most common sources and breast and skin melanomas the most uncommon [1, 12–15].
Among the uncommon primary sources of splenic metastases, there is the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) . This type of tumor is sporadic in western countries (incidence: 0.5–2/100.000/year) and more frequent in certain endemic areas, such as southern China (incidence: 25/100.000/year, Hong Kong) [16, 17]. Intermediate-risk regions are the Middle East, southeastern Asia, northern Africa, and Alaska. NPC is usually unresectable at diagnosis, but it is more responsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy than other cancers of the head and neck . However, NPC is prone to early metastatic spread. Cervical lymph node metastases are present at diagnosis in 75–90 % of cases and are bilateral in more than 50 % of the cases [19–21]. A cervical lymph node advanced disease is linked to a higher risk of distant metastasis (33 % for N1, 70 % for N2/N3 at 10 years) and reduced survival. Distant metastases are present at diagnosis in 5–11 % of patients, and the most common sites are bone, lung and liver tissues. According to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee Cancer Staging Manual , the 5-year survival rates by stage of NPC are 72 % for stage I, 64 % for stage II, 62 % for stage III, and 38 % for stage IV.
In the present study, we report the case of a patient with a complete remission (CR) of a NPC after chemo-radiotherapy, who underwent splenectomy for a solitary hypermetabolic splenic lesion detected at the 3-month follow-up. Additionally, we performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of assessing the number and characteristics of the reported cases of splenic metastases from NCP.
A 56-year-old Caucasian man, smoker, underwent an ENT examination for enlarged left cervical lymph node associated with left otalgia appearing 3 months earlier. At nasal endoscopy, a nasopharyngeal lesion extending from the left Rosenmüller fossa to the choanae was found, and biopsies were performed. The pathology report was conclusive for undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharyngeal type (UCNT). The cervical contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) showed enlarged jugular nodes bilaterally (largest sizes were 25 × 22 mm and 23 × 18 mm on the left side) with left jugular vein compression and signs of nodal necrosis. The thoracic scan detected an irregular nodule of 6 mm in the medial-basal segment of the right lung and non-specific micro-nodules in the left superior lobe. The abdominal scan showed no liver focal lesions or other organ involvement. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to assess more accurately the loco-regional extent of the tumor. It showed no intracranial extension and confirmed a skull base erosion (left basisphenoid inferior lysis) with thickening of the nasal fossae soft tissues (8 mm) at the level of the choanae. Cervical lymph node disease was confirmed at the IIB level on the right side and at the IB, II, III, and IV levels on the left side. A subsequent positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan showed a high standardized uptake value (SUV) in the nasopharynx with involvement of the sphenoidal sinus and left greater wing. Serological tests for EBV were positive. The patient was classified as stage IVA (T4N2cM0) and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by intensity modulated radiation radiotherapy (IMRT) and chemotherapy. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy consisted of 3 cycles of docetaxel, carboplatin and 5-fluorouracil, which were followed by IMRT (70 Gy on the nasopharynx and involved lymph nodes and prophylactic treatment with 56 Gy on the other nodal areas) and two cycles of cisplatin. A complete remission was obtained, with no evidence of disease on CT scan at the end of the treatment.
The patient was positioned in a semi-lateral right decubitus position with a cushion placed under the right flank. Four ports were used. First, a 12-mm peri-umbilical optical port was placed with the Hasson technique [23, 24]. Then, the other three ports were visualized directly, and their locations were as follows: an epigastric 5-mm port slightly to the left of the median line, a 12-mm port, and another 5-mm port 4 cm below the left costal arch on anterior and middle axillary lines. A 30° laparoscope and bipolar radiofrequency device were used. The spleno-colic ligament was dissected to expose the lower pole of the spleen, and the gastro-splenic ligament was dissected to expose the splenic hilum. Careful dissection of the splenic artery and vein was performed. The hilar vessels were separated using a 30-mm vascular stapler, with the artery identified first. The diaphragmatic and posterior attachments of the spleen were then dissected, and the entire organ was removed through a Pfannenstiel incision. The operating time was 120 min.
Systematic review of the literature
Materials and methods
The methodological approach included the development of the selection criteria, definition of the search strategy, assessment of the study quality, and abstraction of the relevant data. The PRISMA statement checklist for reporting a systematic review was applied .
Study inclusion criteria
Types of study: all types of original articles (including case report) with no limit of time.
Types of participants: patients affected by NPC with splenic metastases detected by biopsy, imaging, or autopsy.
Literature search strategy
A literature search was performed with the following online databases: MEDLINE (through PubMed) and Google Scholar. A specific research equation was formulated using the following keywords and/or MeSH terms: spleen, metastasis, splenic metastasis, splenic neoplasms, nasopharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal neoplasms. In addition, reference lists from eligible studies and relevant review articles were crosschecked to identify additional studies. No time limitation was applied. Studies written in English, French, or Italian, and meeting the selection criteria were reviewed.
Study selection and quality assessment
The titles and abstracts of the retrieved studies were screened for relevance by two independent reviewers (PG, FB). Subsequently, a full-text analysis of the selected articles was carried out. Any disagreement between the two reviewers during the study selection process was resolved by discussion with a third reviewer (NdeA). The Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used to grade the “body of evidence” emerging from this review .
All studies reporting cases of splenic metastasis from nasopharyngeal cancer were retrieved and included in this systematic review.
Literature search and selection
Among the 15 selected studies [3, 5, 27–39] reporting on splenic metastases from NPC, 13 were published between 2000 and 2015, one was published in 1989, and one was published in 1952. The included studies were very heterogeneous in their design, aims and methods. There were three case reports [27, 36, 38] and 12 case series [3, 5, 28-35, 37, 39]. The studies focused on NPC and the imaging techniques used for diagnosis (n = 5) [28, 33, 35, 37, 39], splenic metastases from solid tumors (n = 3) [3, 5, 31], experience of a single institution in NPC treatment (n = 2) [30, 34], use of serum markers in monitoring NPC systemic relapse (n = 1) , and chemotherapy in NPC patients (n = 1) . Nine studies [3, 28, 29, 32–35, 38, 39] were performed in Asian populations, three in Western countries [5, 31, 37], one in the Middle East , one in Africa , and one in India . Overall, 25 cases of splenic metastases from NPC were described.
Summary of the studies reporting on solitary splenic metastases from NPC
Type of study
Number and type of patients considered
Patients with solitary splenic metastases from NPC
Patient’s age, sex (M, F)
Primary treatment for NPC
Disease-free survival after primary treatment
Methods of detection of splenic metastasis
Treatment for solitary splenic metastasis
Confirmatory histology of NPC splenic metastases
Overall survival (status at last follow-up)
Relapse after splenic surgery
Lam & Tang 
92 patients with splenic metastases
1 (1.1 %)
Suh et al. 
1 non-keratinizing NPC
35 years old, M
- Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (cysplatin and 5-fluorouracil)
- Left medial maxillectomy with left modified radical neck dissection
- Adjuvant radiochemotherapy (cysplatin and 63 Gy)
FDG-PET/CT FNA biopsy
- Systemic chemotherapy (docetaxel and cysplatin)
- Laparoscopic splenectomy
5 months (alive)
Abu-Zaid et al. 
26 years old, M
- Surgical resection
- Adjuvant radiochemotherpay
12 months (alive)
56 years old, M
- Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (docetaxel, carboplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil)
- Radiotherapy (70 Gy)
- Laparoscopic splenectomy
4 months (alive)
Summary of the studies reporting on non-solitary (or not specified) splenic metastases from NPC
Type of study
Number and type of patients considered
Patients with splenic metastases from NPC
Methods of detection
Confirmatory histology of NPC splenic metastases
Relapse and survival rates
Abrams et al. 
1000 patients with splenic metastases from carcinomas
3 (0.3 %)
Siniluoto et al. 
31 patients with splenic metastases
1 (3.2 %)
Wan et al. 
53 patients with focal splenic lesions
2 (3.7 %)
Lam & Tang 
92 patients with splenic metastases
4 (4.3 %)
Gacani et al. 
65 patients with NPC and DM
1 (1.5 %)
DM within 24 months after therapy
Cho et al. 
31 patients with recurrent type 2 NPC
1 (3.2 %)
Radhakrishnan et al. 
1 pediatric patient with UCNT
Death after 90 days of chemotherapy
Ng et al. 
179 NPC patients at high risk of residual disease or with suspected recurrence
1 (0.5 %)
WB-MRI and FDG-PET/CT
Gatenby et al. 
21 patients undergone splenectomies for DM
1 (4.7 %)
Primary tumor, radical neck dissection and synchronous splenectomy
DFS: 1 year 10 month
OS: 2 years 3 months
Hsieh et al. 
22 patients with non-keratinizing or undifferentiated NPC
1 (4.6 %)
US, CT or MRI
Median time to PD: 10 months;
Median OS: 16 months
Mak et al. 
558 patients with NPC
1 (0.2 %)
CT and PET/CT
10.8–18.4 months before DF;
Mean DSS in patients with DM: 31.2 months (95 % CI 20.9–41.6)
Mean OS in patients with DM: 28.2 months (95 % CI 19.3–37.1)
Ma et al. 
2 pediatric patients with NPC
Al Tamimi et al. 
352 patients with NPC and DM
4 (1.1 %)
Solitary splenic metastases with histological confirmation were reported in three cases only [3, 27, 38] (Table 1). In particular, the case reported by Suh et al.  had a presentation similar to our patient. Indeed, the authors described the case of a young male patient with a history of NPC who had a disease-free survival for 7 months after surgery and chemoradiation therapy. The patient was asymptomatic when a hypermetabolic splenic lesion was detected at the PET/CT scan. A percutaneous biopsy confirmed the metastatic involvement of the spleen and a laparoscopic splenectomy was performed. No recurrence was observed after 5 months of follow-up. Similarly, Abu-Zaid et al.  reported the case of a young man with a history of NPC who experienced referred pain in the upper abdominal quadrant. A splenic lesion was detected by means of a CT scan, and an ultrasound-guided biopsy confirmed a NPC metastasis. In all cases, the confirmatory histology showed an UCNT type of NPC solitary splenic metastasis, and all patients underwent successful splenectomy. No study reported relapse or recurrence after the treatment of splenic metastasis.
Prevalence of NPC metastases to the spleen
The overall number of patients analyzed in the studies selected for this systematic review was 2409, including 1212 patients with a diagnosis of NPC [27–30, 32–36, 38] and 1197 patients with a diagnosis of splenic metastases from several primary tumors or splenic focal lesions [28, 33, 35, 37, 39]. Of the 1212 patients with a diagnosis of NPC, 417 had also distant metastases. Splenic metastases were detected in 1.07 % of all NPC patients (13/1212) and in 1.19 % of patients with NPC and distant metastases (5/417). Moreover, NPC represented 1 % of the primary sources among patients with a diagnosis of splenic metastases secondary to all solid tumors (12/1197).
Study quality assessment
Two reviewers (PG and FB) scored the methodological qualities of the included studies according to the criteria described above. No RCT was found. The studies were case reports or case series with different methods and aims. The GRADE system was used to enable a consistent judgment of the quality of the available evidence included in this systematic review, and the studies retrieved were judged as having evidence of very low quality. Of note, the majority of the studies were retrospective, which, by definition, are susceptible to major selection bias, as well as misclassification, detection, or information bias due to the unknown accuracy of record keeping . Moreover, other specific sources of bias (e.g., attrition and reporting bias) cannot be ruled out. The heterogeneous features of the studies evaluated, the low number of pertinent articles found and the lack of specific studies in the literature restrict the possibility of large remarks and represent the main limitations of the present systematic review.
The present study describes a rare case of a patient who underwent splenectomy for a solitary splenic metastasis from UCNT. Moreover, the systematic review found 25 cases of splenic metastases from NPC reported in the literature, with solitary metastases reported in only three of these cases. Based on the available literature, the estimated rate of metastases to the spleen in patients with a diagnosis of NPC is approximately 1 %. Moreover, NPC represents the 1 % of all sources of spleen metastases among metastatic solid cancers.
The very low number of splenic metastases from NPC reported in the literature defines this event as rare. The most recent study on this topic was published in 2007 and reported 93 well-documented cases of solitary splenic metastases . The primary source was a gynecologic cancer in 29 % of these cases (19 % ovarian and 7 % endometrial) and colorectal cancer in 21 %. Several other primary sites, such as the lung, esophagus, stomach, kidney, breast, prostate and skin, were described, but no case of metastases from NPC was reported.
In most of the cases, splenic metastases are diagnosed incidentally in asymptomatic patients. However, splenic metastases, especially the isolated ones, may also occur in association with non-specific clinical manifestations, such as fatigue, weight loss and fever; anemia or thrombocytopenia caused by hypersplenism; pain in the left upper abdominal quadrant; splenomegaly or spontaneous splenic rupture [3, 10, 14, 41–45]. Symptomatic lesions are more frequently reported in women and in younger patients, and the mean maximum size of the lesions in these patients is usually larger than in asymptomatic patients . Moreover, the presence of splenic metastatic foci might also be associated with an increase in serum tumor markers, which might precede the imaging detection of splenic lesions by years .
Several authors reported that the increased use of imaging and PET scan, the close follow-up and the prolonged survival favored an increasing detection of metastases to the spleen [1, 9, 46]. Most often, splenic metastases are diagnosed by means of ultrasonography or CT, but MRI can also be used to study splenic focal lesions . However, the differentiation between benign and malignant splenic focal lesions can be difficult using these techniques, and an 18F-FDG scan is often performed [1, 9, 46]. A positive history of cancer appeared as the only independent predictive factor for malignancy of a splenic lesion , and this is consistent with our case report and with the current literature [3, 10, 14, 41–45] Generally, in patients with a history of malignancy, a solitary splenic lesion should be first considered as a metastases . In these patients, a histologic diagnosis should be achieved by percutaneous biopsy or splenectomy [1, 47–49]. According to several studies, imaging-guided percutaneous biopsy of suspicious splenic lesions is relatively safe and accurate [9, 11], with a diagnostic yield and accuracy of 90–92 and 95 %, respectively, in front of a 2 % rate of major complications [1, 9]. However, splenectomy is much more common in clinical practice, mainly because of the hemorrhagic risk , showing a diagnostic yield of 95 % and representing at the same time a therapeutic procedure . Splenectomy has been reported for both synchronous or metachronous metastases [31, 48–51], and some authors considered the surgical treatment of isolated splenic metachronous metastases as effective as for hepatic and pulmonary secondary lesions in the control of the neoplastic disease [2, 48, 51–53]. However, splenectomy for solitary metastases also represents a therapeutic challenge because of its uncertain impact on the patient’s prognosis. Indeed, splenic involvement is generally linked to a widespread disease [7, 48], and a survival inferior than 30 days was reported in case of infarction in a metastatic spleen .
To assess the role of surgery in the treatment of isolated splenic metastases, Piardi et al.  reported 28 cases of splenectomy for isolated metastases to the spleen, which in most cases involved single lesions. No increase complication rate or mortality was reported, with a disease-free and an overall survival rates ranging between 3 and 31 months and between 3 and 96 months, respectively. The authors concluded that, although prognosis is always linked to the primary tumor stage, splenectomy can be justified because it might avoid complications related to a progressive increase in the metastatic volume and an infiltrative spread involving surrounding organs and tissues, especially diaphragm, and abscess formation [10, 55]. Furthermore, splenectomy could also be justified as a debulking procedure before chemotherapy [55–57], it could result in longer survival [51, 57], and it should be performed shortly after the detection of the splenic metastasis .
Both laparoscopic and open splenectomy can be performed. When operating for malignancies, the open approach is usually preferred because it could provide an easier access to other areas if needed . However, several studies considered laparoscopic splenectomy a highly reliable procedure that can be performed safely . In our case report, the lesion was well-delimited with no invasion of surrounding tissues, and no difficulties were encountered in performing a laparoscopic splenectomy.
To date, it is difficult to predict the clinical behavior of solitary splenic metastases because its occurrence is rare, and the literature on this topic contains mostly case reports with short follow-up periods. Cancer cells already implanted in the splenic parenchyma might not be detected at the time of primary diagnosis by conventional methods, and the hostile splenic environment might not facilitate the growth of micrometastatic foci. This might explain the contrast between the prevalence of splenic micro-metastases at autopsy in patients with multivisceral cancer and the rarity of clinically detectable lesions. Therefore, splenic metastases might result from the growth of early blood-borne disseminated cancer cells within the spleen after a certain period of clinical latency [1, 10], which sometimes is very long (up to 7  or 11 years ). This might also explain the long-term remission achieved in some patients treated with splenectomy alone [3, 10, 13, 48, 57] supporting that isolated splenic metastases are not necessarily the precursor sign of active metastatic cancer in the terminal stage.
The anatomic extent of the metastasis is closely associated with the prognosis of the patients with metastatic NPC . A single metastatic lesion in an isolated location (organ or site) is reported to be associated with prolonged survival compared to multiple metastatic lesions in a single or multiple locations [61, 62]. A growing body of evidence shows that long-term survival could be achieved for selective NPC patients with limited metastatic lesions by a combination of systemic and local therapies [63, 64]. The reported overall survival of NPC patients after the detection of distant metastases ranged from 22 to 120 months [60, 61, 65]. Furthermore, the distant failure hazard is estimated to decrease by 19 % for each year the latency .
The great heterogeneity encountered in the studies analyzed in the present systematic review, particularly the different study designs, aims and methods, represents the main limitation of the present study. Most of the studies were published between 2000 and 2015, although two were dated in the 1980s and 1950s. This very large time frame may also impact on the heterogeneity of diagnostic and therapeutic protocols changed and improved over the years. Important data, such as survival rates, were not always specific for NPC cases of splenic metastases. Autopsy series hamper the possibility to remark on the clinical aspects and prognosis. However, despite these limitations mainly inherent in the currently available studies, the present study is the first one to systematically review the literature on splenic metastases from NPC, and it can be useful to build a general framework regarding splenic metastases, thus providing useful information to guide clinical practice. Further and more specific studies are needed to better assess the incidence of splenic involvement in patients with NPC, and to evaluate the impact of splenectomy in cases of metastases to the spleen.
According to the literature reviewed, splenic metastasis are rare but should be considered for patients with a history of NPC and diagnosis of splenic lesions at imaging. There is no evidence supporting a negative impact of splenectomy in patients with isolated splenic metastases from NPC.
CR, complete remission; CT, computed tomography; ENT, ear, nose, throat; NPC, nasopharyngeal carcinoma; PET, positron emission tomography; RCT, randomized controlled trail; SUV, standardized uptake value; UCNT, undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type; US, ultrasound
The authors would like to thank Dr Maria Clotilde Carra for her help and support in manuscript revisions.
Availability of data and supporting materials
The authors are responsible of for the accurateness of the presented data and guarantee the full availability of data and materials. Data of the case report and the reviewed literature can be obtained by contacting the corresponding author.
PG contributed to the study conception, literature search, data analysis, manuscript drafting, and manuscript revision. FB contributed to the patient treatment, manuscript revision. EB contributed to the patient treatment and manuscript revision. FL contributed to the literature search, data analysis, and manuscript revision. VL contributed to the literature search, manuscript drafting, and manuscript revision. FE contributed to the literature search, manuscript drafting, and manuscript revision. CC contributed to the patient treatment and manuscript revision. JC contributed to the patient treatment and manuscript revision. DA contributed study conception, criticism, and manuscript revision. NdeA contributed to the study conception, data analysis, criticism, manuscript drafting, and manuscript revision. All authors have significantly contributed to this study and approved the final manuscript.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent for publication
Written informed consent was obtained by the patient for publication of the case report and accompanying images.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
The study was conducted according to the ethical principles of the Institution following the Declaration of Helsinki.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Comperat E, Bardier-Dupas A, Camparo P, Capron F, Charlotte F. Splenic metastases: clinicopathologic presentation, differential diagnosis, and pathogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2007;131:965–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klein B, Stein M, Kuten A, Steiner M, Barshalom D, Robinson E, Gal D. Splenomegaly and solitary spleen metastasis in solid tumors. Cancer. 1987;60:100–2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lam KY, Tang V. Metastatic tumors to the spleen: a 25-year clinicopathologic study. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2000;124:526–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peters AM. Why the spleen is a very rare site for metastases from epithelial cancers. Med Hypotheses. 2012;78:26–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Abrams HL. The incidence of splenic metastasis of carcinoma. Calif Med. 1952;76:281–2.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Marymont Jr JH, Gross S. Patterns of metastatic cancer in the spleen. Am J Clin Pathol. 1963;40:58–66.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schon CA, Gorg C, Ramaswamy A, Barth PJ. Splenic metastases in a large unselected autopsy series. Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202:351–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Berge T. Splenic metastases. Frequencies and patterns. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 1974;82:499–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pugalenthi A, Bradley C, Gonen M, Do KG, Strong V, Jarnagin W, Coit D, Kingham TP. Splenectomy to treat splenic lesions: an analysis of 148 cases at a cancer center. J Surg Oncol. 2013;108:521–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Agha-Mohammadi S, Calne RY. Solitary splenic metastasis: case report and review of the literature. Am J Clin Oncol. 2001;24:306–10.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kraus MDFM, Vonderheide RH. The spleen as a diagnostic specimen. Cancer 91.11 (2001). The spleen as a diagnostic specimen. Cancer. 2001;91:2001–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barreca M, Angelini D, Gallo A, Puntillo F, Amodio PM, Fernandes E. Single asymptomatic splenic metastasis of breast carcinoma: report of a clinical case. G Chir. 2001;22:227–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- de Wilt JH, McCarthy WH, Thompson JF. Surgical treatment of splenic metastases in patients with melanoma. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;197:38–43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hoar FJ, Chan SY, Stonelake PS, Wolverson RW, Bareford D. Splenic rupture as a consequence of dual malignant pathology: a case report. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:709–10.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Iype S, Akbar MA, Krishna G. Isolated splenic metastasis from carcinoma of the breast. Postgrad Med J. 2002;78:173–4.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D. Pathology and Genetics of Head and Neck Tumours. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Classification of Tumours; 2005.Google Scholar
- Chang ET, Adami HO. The enigmatic epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1765–77.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guigay J, Temam S, Bourhis J, Pignon JP, Armand JP. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma and therapeutic management: the place of chemotherapy. Ann Oncol. 2006;17 Suppl 10:x304–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altun M, Fandi A, Dupuis O, Cvitkovic E, Krajina Z, Eschwege F. Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal cancer (UCNT): current diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1995;32:859–77.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsu MM, Tu SM. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Taiwan. Clinical manifestations and results of therapy. Cancer. 1983;52:362–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vokes EE, Liebowitz DN, Weichselbaum RR. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Lancet. 1997;350:1087–91.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Edge SB, Byrd DR, Compton CC, Fritz AG, Greene FL, Trotti A, editors. AJCC cancer staging manual. 7th ed. New York: Springer; 2010.Google Scholar
- Gamme G, Birch DW, Karmali S. Minimally invasive splenectomy: an update and review. Can J Surg. 2013;56:280.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Fisichella PM, Wong YM, Pappas SG, Abood GJ. Laparoscopic splenectomy: perioperative management, surgical technique, and results. J Gastrointest Surg. 2014;18:404–10.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:264–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann HJ. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ. 2008;336:924–6.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Abu-Zaid A, Qureshi S, Mina S, Safwat Y, Sulaimanie S, Azzam A, Mohammed S, Amin T. Splenic metastasis arising from recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a rare case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2015;58:256–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al Tamimi AS, Zaheer S, Ng DC, Osmany S. The incidence and sites of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) metastases on FDG PET/CT scans. Oral Oncol. 2015;51:1047–50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cho WC, Yip TT, Yip C, Yip V, Thulasiraman V, Ngan RK, Yip T-T, Lau W-H, Au JS, Law SC. Identification of serum amyloid a protein as a potentially useful biomarker to monitor relapse of nasopharyngeal cancer by serum proteomic profiling. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:43–52.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gacani W, Bal IS, Babu MA, Oburra HO. Distant metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 2001;78:678–81.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gatenby PA, Mudan SS, Wotherspoon AC. Splenectomy for non-haematological metastatic malignant disease. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2011;396:625–38.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hsieh CH, Hsu CL, Wang CH, Liaw CC, Chen JS, Chang HK, Yang TS, Chang JW, Lin YC, Liau CT, et al. Cisplatin, tegafur-uracil and leucovorin plus mitomycin C: an acceptably effective and toxic regimen for patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Biomed J. 2013;36:229–36.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ma C, Zou R, Huo Y, Chen S, Wang S, Wu S, Ye Z, Wu Z, Fang F, Wang H. (18)F-FDG uptake characteristics in differentiating benign from malignant nasopharyngeal lesions in children. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:354970.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Mak HW, Lee SH, Chee J, Tham I, Goh BC, Chao SS, Ong YK, Loh KS, Lim CM. Clinical outcome among nasopharyngeal cancer patients in a multi-ethnic society in Singapore. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0126108.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ng SH, Chan SC, Yen TC, Liao CT, Chang JT, Ko SF, Wang HM, Lin CY, Chang KP, Lin YC. Comprehensive imaging of residual/recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma using whole-body MRI at 3 T compared with FDG-PET-CT. Eur Radiol. 2010;20:2229–40.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Radhakrishnan V, Thulkar S, Karunanithi S, Tanveer N, Bakhshi S. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with splenic and cystic liver metastases in a pediatric patient: 18F-FDG PET-CT findings. Pediatr Radiol. 2010;40 Suppl 1:S79–82.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Siniluoto T, Paivansalo M, Lahde S. Ultrasonography of splenic metastases. Acta Radiol. 1989;30:463–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Suh KJ, Keam B, Im J, Kim MS, Lee D-W, Kim D-Y, Wu H-G. Solitary splenic metastasis from head and neck cancer: a case report. Korean J Med. 2013;85:324.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wan YL. Ultrasonographic findings and differentation of benign and malignant focal splenic lesions. 2000. p. 76.Google Scholar
- Kavanagh BP. The GRADE System for Rating Clinical Guidelines. PLoS Med 2009;6(9): e1000094. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000094.
- Gupta PB, Harvey L. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen secondary to metastatic carcinoma. Br J Surg. 1993;80:613.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hou HC, Chen CJ, Chang TC, Hsieh TT. Metastatic choriocarcinoma with spontaneous splenic rupture following term pregnancy: a case report. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1996;19:166–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ruther U, Schmidt A, Rupp W, Bader H, Nunnensiek C, Rassweiler J, Rothe B, Eisenberger F, Jipp P. Spontaneous splenic rupture in a patient with multiloculated signet ring cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Eur Urol. 1993;23:417–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schmidt BJ, Smith SL. Isolated splenic metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinoma. South Med J. 2004;97:298–300.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Showalter SL, Hager E, Yeo CJ. Metastatic disease to the pancreas and spleen. Semin Oncol. 2008;35:160–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Metser U, Miller E, Kessler A, Lerman H, Lievshitz G, Oren R, Even-Sapir E. Solid splenic masses: evaluation with 18F-FDG PET/CT. J Nucl Med. 2005;46:52–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cristallini EG, Peciarolo A, Bolis GB, Valenti L. Fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of a splenic metastasis from a papillary serous ovarian adenocarcinoma. Acta Cytol. 1991;35:560–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Piardi T, D’Adda F, Giampaoli F, Pulcini G, Lancini GP, Pouche A. Solitary metachronous splenic metastases: an evaluation of surgical treatment. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 1999;18:575–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Solbiati L, Bossi MC, Bellotti E, Ravetto C, Montali G. Focal lesions in the spleen: sonographic patterns and guided biopsy. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1983;140:59–65.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Darai E, Filippini F, Meicle P, Leblanc M, Madelenat P. Metastasi splenica isolata di un carcinoma endometrioide dell’ovaio. Minerva Ginecol. 1995;47:117–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ishida H, Konno K, Ishida J, Shirayama K, Naganuma H, Komatsuda T, Hamashima Y, Masamune O. Isolated splenic metastases. J Ultrasound Med. 1997;16:743–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cossa J, Bokobza B, Surlemont Y, Michot F, Tenière P. Métastase splénique métachrone d’un cancer colique: à propos d’une observation. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 1987;11:914–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hamy A, Letessier E, Gaschignard N, Guillard Y, Paineau J, Visset J. Les métastases spléniques: a propos de 4 observations. J Chir. 1993;130:467–9.Google Scholar
- Gorg C, Seifart U, Gorg K. Acute, complete splenic infarction in cancer patient is associated with a fatal outcome. Abdom Imaging. 2004;29:224–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee SS, Morgenstern L, Phillips EH, Hiatt JR, Margulies DR. Splenectomy for splenic metastases: a changing clinical spectrum. Am Surg. 2000;66:837–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nicklin JL, Copeland LJ, O’Toole RV, Lewandowski GS, Vaccarello L, Havenar LP. Splenectomy as part of cytoreductive surgery for ovarian carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 1995;58:244–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sauer J, Sobolewski K, Dommisch K. Splenic metastases—not a frequent problem, but an underestimate location of metastases: epidemiology and course. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;135:667–71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Makrin VAS, White I, Sagie B, Szold A. Laparoscopic splenectomy for solitary splenic tumors. Surg Endosc. 2008;22(9):2009–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thomas SM, Fitzgerald JB, Pollock RE, Evans DB. Isolated splenic metastases from colon carcinoma. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1993;19:485–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shen LJ, Wang SY, Xie GF, Zeng Q, Chen C, Dong AN, Huang ZM, Pan CC, Xia YF, Wu PH. Subdivision of M category for nasopharyngeal carcinoma with synchronous metastasis: time to expand the M categorization system. Chin J Cancer. 2015;34:40.View ArticlePubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lin S, Tham IW, Pan J, Han L, Chen Q, Lu JJ. Combined high-dose radiation therapy and systemic chemotherapy improves survival in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic nasopharyngeal cancer. Am J Clin Oncol. 2012;35:474–9.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pan CC, Lu J, Yu JR, Chen P, Li W, Huang ZL, Zhao M, Huang ZM, Xia YF, Wu YH, Wu PH. Challenges in the modification of the M1 stage of the TNM staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A study of 1027 cases and review of the literature. Exp Ther Med. 2012;4:334–8.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Jin Y, Cai YC, Cao Y, Cai XY, Tan YT, Shi YX, Jiang WQ. Radiofrequency ablation combined with systemic chemotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma liver metastases improves response to treatment and survival outcomes. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106:322–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pan CC, Wu PH, Yu JR, Li W, Huang ZL, Wang JP, Zhao M. Comparative survival analysis in patients with pulmonary metastases from nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with radiofrequency ablation. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:e473–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li JX, Huang SM, Wen BX, Lu TX. Prognostic factors on overall survival of newly diagnosed metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15:3169–73.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee AW, Foo W, Law SC, Poon YF, Sze WM, SK O, Tung SY, Chappell R, Lau WH, Ho JH. Recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the puzzles of long latency. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999;44:149–56.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar