- Technical innovations
- Open Access
An automatically contamination-avoiding technique for intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy using a transorally inserted anvil during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer
- Yan-Feng Hu†1,
- Da Wang†1, 2,
- Tian Lin1,
- Ting-Yu Mou1,
- Hao Liu1,
- Tao Chen1,
- Zhen-Wei Deng1,
- Xin Lu1,
- Jiang Yu1Email author and
- Guo-Xin Li1Email author
© Hu et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015
Received: 5 November 2014
Accepted: 26 March 2015
Published: 19 April 2015
Intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer remains a challenging manipulation due to the uncontrolled direction of the jejunal side or unintended embedded tissues, although several methods have been introduced. In this study, we simplified the procedure based on a surgical string fixing technique using a transorally inserted anvil (OrVil™; Covidien Ltd., Mansfield, MA, USA).
From March 2012 to September 2013, 14 consecutive patients underwent simplified intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy using OrVil™ during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer at our hospital. Clinicopathologic characteristics and surgical outcomes of these patients were retrospectively analyzed.
All of the procedures were successful completed with no complication or conversion to open surgery. The mean overall operative time was 193.8 ± 41.8 min, whereas the mean reconstruction time was 32.6 ± 4.6 min. The mean estimated blood loss was 105.7 ± 65.4 ml. The mean diameter of anastomosis measured by upper gastrointestinal contrast X-ray test at 1 month after operation was 2.3 cm. During a median follow-up period of 12 months, neither local recurrence nor anastomosis-related morbidity was observed.
Our preliminary results suggested that this automatically contamination-avoiding technique based on a surgical-string-fixing strategy using OrVil™ during laparoscopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer might be feasible and safe and provide a simple solution for intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy.
Extracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy during laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy for gastric cancer is one of the most challenging manipulations even in experienced hands. To overcome the surgical difficulty and maximize the clinical benefits from minimally invasive surgery in the management of patients with proximal gastric cancer, intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy, including either circular or linear anastomosis, has been introduced recently [1-4]. Among those methods, circular anastomosis following transabdominal insertion of an anvil with purse-string suture is the most frequently used pattern [1,4]. However, the difficulties in terms of laparoscopically creating a purse-string suture and fixing the anvil at the esophageal stump always exist, increasing the potential risk of complications and prolonging the operation time.
To avoid these difficulties mentioned above, a transorally inserted anvil (OrVil™; Covidien Ltd., Mansfield, MA, USA) device has been developed in recent years [5-7]. Previous reports [6,8] have shown its technical feasibility and potential advantages; however, the course of approximation between the anvil and center rod does not always proceed safely by intracorporeal laparoscopic view due to the uncontrolled direction of the jejunal side or unintended embedded tissues [7,8]. Thus, we attempted to simplify this technique by adopting several tips with inexpensive and available devices and evaluated its surgical safety in the present study.
Between March 2012 and September 2013, 14 consecutive patients with proximal gastric adenocarcinoma underwent simplified intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy using a transorally inserted anvil system (OrVil™; Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) during laparoscopic total gastrectomy at our hospital. These patients followed a stepwise postoperative management protocol for diet resume from water to other liquids to semi-fluids to normal food when the patient can tolerate the diet satisfactorily and is free from anastomotic complication as early as possible after surgery and received upper gastrointestinal contrast X-ray check of esophagojejunostomy at postoperative 1 month. Clinicopathologic characteristics and surgical outcomes of these patients based on a prospectively maintained database  were then retrospectively analyzed. The present study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Nanfang Hospital (No. 2013087A).
Procedure before anastomosis
Insertion of the anvil transorally
The tube was lightly secured to fix the anvil at the proper position. The thread connecting the tube and anvil was then released (Figure 3c). The tube was removed to expose the rod of the anvil sufficiently. At that time, the insertion of the anvil was completed.
Modification and tips of the intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy
Approximation between the anvil and center rod
Demographic, operative, and clinicopathologic data of the patients are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (range) if they are continuous variables.
Clinicopathologic characteristics and operative results of the patients
59.0 ± 12.1
Body mass index, kg/m2
23.4 ± 2.2
Overall operation time, min
193.8 ± 41.8
Overall reconstruction time, min
32.6 ± 4.6
Time for anvil placement, min
8.4 ± 4.0
Time for esophagojejunostomy, min
23.8 ± 5.2
Estimated blood loss, ml
105.7 ± 65.4
Stagea I/II/III, n
Proximal margin, cm
3.6 ± 1.7
No. of retrieved lymph nodes
33.9 ± 18.1
Immediate postoperative course
First flatus, mean, days
3.3 ± 0.7
Hospital duration, mean, days
8.7 ± 3.2
Short-term anastomosis-related complications, n
Esophagojejunostomy diameter, cm
2.3 ± 0.3
Follow-up period (median, range), months
12 (6 to 24)
Long-term complications, n
Laparoscopic total gastrectomy becomes significantly challenging when the reconstruction procedure involves intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy because it is difficult to perform a proper purse-string suture at the esophageal stump and insert an anvil into the esophageal lumen . Even more troublesome is applying the stapling device appropriately under limited laparoscopic views, particularly in obese patients . Some reports have introduced solutions to improve the procedure, but problems remain such as the requirement for special expensive instruments that are not always available or additional skills [4,10,11]. A linear stapler has been chosen by some surgeons instead of a circular one to perform esophagojejunostomy laparoscopically that unsatisfactorily overcomes the limitation of requiring a certain esophageal length and an intracorporeal hand-suture .
To solve these problems and overcome the limitations, we describe herein a simplified technique for intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy using a circular stapler. No special technique is required, and the simplified procedure can be easily performed. Its safety and feasibility has been suggested in a series of 14 patients, of whom none suffered postoperative anastomosis-related complications.
Transoral insertion of an anvil (OrVil™) provides a solution for secure anvil placement in the esophagus. With an anesthesiologist’s help, pharyngeal or esophageal injury can be effectively avoided. Our method to manipulate the process is to open a small incision at the alternative edge of the esophageal stump after dividing the esophagus horizontally using a linear stapler and securing the anvil with a pair of grasping forceps after introducing the anvil tube into view. Thus, the anvil is guaranteed to be placed at an appropriate position without tearing the esophageal stump facilitating subsequent operations.
With similar methods in the recently published literature , problems such as distortion of the Roux limb or mesenterium and slipping of the esophagojejunal anastomotic site into the low mediastinum have not yet met ideal solutions. As presented above, fixation of the circular stapler and glove was followed by fixation of the jejunal loop and glove, causing the stapler-glove-jejunal loop to integrate and form a self-made single-site access system that prevents slippage of the jejunal loop out of the circular stapler during the intracorporeal procedure. Additionally, flexible mobilization is enabled to make a fine alignment, ensuring optimal functioning of the reconstructive digestive tract. The small bowel was more easily held backward to prevent it from becoming trapped between the anvil and circular stapler. The sealed space, established by turning over the glove edge to seal off the wound protector, allowed for a clearer visual field for the laparoscopic operation. Thus, tissue injury caused by excessive traction or slight errors can be minimized. Moreover, the anchoring suture could be cut along with the donut during the scalper firing and separated automatically without additional cutting when the main unit was pulled back. Thus, the simplified technique does not significantly create excessive steps and prolong the overall operative time. To prevent possible anastomotic stenosis, selection of the proper anvil size of circular stapler should be considered carefully, which usually depends on both the diameter of esophageal and jejunal stump. A diameter of 25-mm anvil is the most common choice at our institution for Chinese patients, while a relatively larger size would be applied casually. Meanwhile, intraoperative examination and postoperative early oral intake was also recommended . In our daily clinical practice, generally, a stepwise management protocol for diet resume from water to other liquids to semi-fluids to normal food should be carried out when the patient can tolerate the diet satisfactorily and is free from anastomotic complication as early as possible after surgery. Theoretically, adding the solid food appropriately in terms of volume and frequency might be helpful to dilate the anastomotic site. Besides, routine upper gastrointestinal contrast X-ray test at postoperative 1 month is recommended for early detection of stricture.
Our initial findings show that this automatically contamination-avoiding technique based on a surgical-string-fixing strategy is technically feasible and could provide a simple solution for intracorporeal Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy. However, a perspective study is needed to evaluate the surgical safety of this technique.
This work was supported by the Research Fund of Public welfare in Health Industry (No. 201402015), the Major Program of Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou (No. 201300000087), the National Key Technology R & D Program (no. 2013BAI05B00), and the Development Center for Medical Science and Technology, Ministry of Health of China (no. W2011WAI44), and the Key Clinical Specialty Discipline Construction Program.
- Kinoshita T, Oshiro T, Ito K, Shibasaki H, Okazumi S, Katoh R. Intracorporeal circular-stapled esophagojejunostomy using hand-sewn purse-string suture after laparoscopic total gastrectomy. Surg Endosc. 2010;24:2908–12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jeong O, Park YK. Intracorporeal circular stapling esophagojejunostomy using the transorally inserted anvil (OrVil™) after laparoscopic total gastrectomy. Surg Endosc. 2009;23:2624–30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagai E, Ohuchida K, Nakata K, Miyasaka Y, Maeyama R, Toma H, et al. Feasibility and safety of intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy after laparoscopic total gastrectomy: inverted T-shaped anastomosis using linear staplers. Surgery. 2013;153:732–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim HI, Cho I, Jang DS, Hyung WJ. Intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy using a circular stapler with a new purse-string suture technique during laparoscopic total gastrectomy. J Am Coll Surg. 2013;216:e11–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kunisaki C, Makino H, Oshima T, Fujii S, Kimura J, Takagawa R, et al. Application of the transorally inserted anvil (OrVil™) after laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy. Surg Endosc. 2011;25:1300–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mou T, Hu Y, Yu J, Wang Y, Zhao L, Li G. Clinical value of transorally inserted anvil in esophagojejnnostomy after laparoseopic total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Chin J Dig Surg. 2012;11:211–4.Google Scholar
- Chong-Wei K, Dan-Lei C, Dan D. A modified technique for esophagojejunostomy or esophagogastrostomy after laparoscopic gastrectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2013;23:e109–15.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liao GQ, Ou XW, Liu SQ, Zhang SR, Huang W. Laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy with trans-orally inserted anvil (OrVil): a single institution experience. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:755–60.View ArticlePubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu YF, Yu J, Zhang C, Wang YN, Cheng X, Huang F, et al. Development and implementation of a clinical data mining system for gastric cancer surgery. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2010;13:510–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Facy O, De Blasi V, Goergen M, Arru L, De Magistris L, Azagra JS. Laparoscopic gastrointestinal anastomoses using knotless barbed sutures are safe and reproducible: a single-center experience with 201 patients. Surg Endosc. 2013;27:3841–5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshikawa T, Hayashi T, Aoyama T, Cho H, Fujikawa H, Shirai J, et al. Laparoscopic esophagojejunostomy using the EndoStitch and a circular stapler under a direct view created by the ENDOCAMELEON. Gastric Cancer. 2013;16:609–14.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Inagake M, Yamane T, Kitao Y, Okuzumi J, Kuwata K, Yamaguchi T, et al. Balloon dilatation for anastomotic stricture after upper gastro-intestinal surgery. World J Surg. 1992;16:541–4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.