Gastric and duodenal squamous cell carcinoma: metastatic or primary?
© Hu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 17 September 2012
Accepted: 7 August 2013
Published: 19 August 2013
Either metastatic or primary squamous cell carcinoma in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we report a case in which the patient presented with dysphagia during the course of radiotherapy for recurrent lung cancer in a mediastinal lymph node. Although the dysphagia mimicked radiation esophagitis, the ultimate cause proved to be gastric and duodenal metastases from primary lung squamous cell carcinoma. Taking into account the value of identification of metastatic or primary SCC in the stomach and duodenum on the prognosis and treatment options, it is imperative that the correct diagnosis be established. This report is followed by a discussion of the differential diagnosis between metastatic and primary squamous cell carcinoma in the stomach and duodenum.
Either metastatic or primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, with very few cases reported in the literature. The gastrointestinal tract has rarely been reported as a metastatic site of various tumors, such as lung cancer, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, testicular seminoma, choriocarcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and others [1–4]. Most occurrences of metastatic SCC involving the gastrointestinal tract originate from lung primary tumors, but these occurrences remain extremely rare, with very few cases of stomach or duodenal involvement reported in the literature [5, 6].
The incidence of primary SCC of the stomach or duodenum is also very low. It is estimated that the worldwide incidence of primary SCC of the stomach is 0.04% to 0.07% [7, 8]. Fewer than ten cases of primary SCC of the duodenum have been noted . In this report, we present an unusual case of gastric and duodenal metastases from primary lung SCC with a discussion of the differential diagnosis between metastatic and primary SCC in the stomach and duodenum.
Because of the absence of continuity between the gastric and duodenal metastatic lesions, our present case report is probably the first to describe gastric and duodenal metastases from primary lung SCC. Taking into account the value of identification of metastatic or primary SCC in the stomach and duodenum on the prognosis and treatment options, it is imperative that the correct diagnosis be established. Usually, the visual diagnosis followed by tissue diagnosis of the tumor is enough to establish the diagnosis of SCC. However, it is rarely possible to differentiate metastatic SCC from primary SCC involving the stomach and duodenum based on symptoms and imaging findings, because the major manifestations are the same. A documented history of SCC in other primary sites lends weight to the diagnosis of metastasis, especially in patients with diffuse metastases involving other organs. In this case, recurrence in the mediastinal lymph node and involvement of both stomach and duodenum were highly suggestive of metastatic rather than primary lesions. However, it could be argued that a history of malignancy does not necessarily imply that the new lesions are metastatic in nature. An early-stage primary malignancy followed by new ostensibly metastatic lesions after a relatively long interval will make the differential diagnosis of metastasis versus new primary tumor difficult. More importantly, the diagnosis of metastatic tumor to gastrointestinal tract is challenging on the rare occasions when it represents the first and only metastatic site. It would be even more challenging where the gastrointestinal involvement presents prior to the detection of the primary site.
Histological examination is critical as the most valuable way to differentiate metastatic from primary tumors involving the gastrointestinal tract. The differences in the pathogenensis of metastatic or primary SCC in the gastrointestinal tract are also helpful to the differential diagnosis. The gastrointestinal tract may be metastatically involved by direct invasion, intraperitoneal dissemination and/or lymphatic or hematogenous cancer spread. The pathogenesis of SCC in the stomach and duodenum has not been well-elucidated. Several theories regarding the origin of SCC in the stomach and duodenum have been proposed, including nests of ectopic squamous cells, the proliferation of uncommitted mucosal basal cells into squamous cells, squamous metaplasia secondary to chronic mucosal damage, squamous differentiation in a preexisting adenocarcinonma and multipotent stem cells in the gastrointestinal mucosa [7, 10, 11]. Endoscopically, nearly all the meatastatic cases present as submucosal tumors with bridging folds and small ulcerations at the top, termed volcano-like ulcers[5, 12]. The morphologic finding at low magnification of inverted tumor cell growth (that is, with the tumor growth mainly involving the serosal surface and perivisceral adipose tissue with or without ulceration of the mucosa) often suggests a metastatic tumor . Unfortunately, these features can be obscured by biopsy artefact and will disappear as the tumor progresses.
Patients with gastrointestinal metastases are often asymptomatic. Less frequently, these metastases can cause various symptoms such as gastrointestinal perforation, obstruction and/or hemorrhage. These nonspecific symptoms may be misinterpreted as indefinite complaints or as a side effect of treatment. For our patient, his complaint of dysphagia was transiently misdiagnosed as radiation-related esophagitis. Therefore, preemptive endoscopic examinations and careful biopsies are recommended in symptomatic patients. The presence of misplaced squamous cell nests or squamous metaplasia in the mucosa adjacent to the infiltrative tumor growth is highly suggestive of a primary SCC. However, in most of the reported cases of primary gastric SCC, precursor lesions were not demonstrated .
Immunohistochemistry may also be useful in reaching the correct diagnosis. Over the past decade, expression levels of CK7, CK20 and TTF-1 have been widely used to distinguish pulmonary from gastrointestinal carcinomas, especially when evaluated as a panel of markers . However, these markers are mainly used to discriminate adenocarcinoma or carcinoid tumors from different sites and have limited value in the differential diagnosis of SCC. Kanthan et al. adopted CK5, p63 and p16 as immunohistochemical markers to confirm the diagnosis of SCC of the cervix metastatic to the duodenum . Strikingly, Gevaert et al. studied the expression profiles of a series human epithelial cancers and their metastases by microarray technology and concluded that SCCs do not reflect their primary tissue expression profile . Huang et al. performed immunohistochemical staining to compare the expression pattern of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers between primary SCC of the hypopharynx and a metastatic lesion of the duodenum. Impressively, dissociation of E-cadherin in cellular junctions and nuclear expression of Snail were detected in the primary tumor sample; in contrast, restoration of membranous E-cadherin and disappearance of nuclear Snail expression were demonstrated in the duodenal metastatic sample . Their result may partially explain the unusual metastasis from the metastatic mechanisms, which await further verification.
The prevalence of SCC of the stomach and/or duodenum is very low. The clinician should be aware of the possibilities of either metastatic or primary involvement of the stomach and duodenum with SCC. Distinguishing between the two requires extensive evaluation, including the patient’s clinical history, histological examination, immunohistochemical staining and possibly microarray data.
Written informed consent was obtained from a son of the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.
We thank Dr. Case Ketting (Mission Hope Cancer Center, Santa Maria, CA, USA) for polishing the English writing of the article. Funding was received from the Program for Innovative Research Team in Zhejiang Province (Grant 2012R50046).
- Okazaki R, Ohtani H, Takeda K, Sumikawa T, Yamasaki A, Matsumoto S, Shimizu E: Gastric metastasis by primary lung adenocarcinoma. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2010, 2: 395-398.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McLemore EC, Pockaj BA, Reynolds C, Gray RJ, Hernandez JL, Grant CS, Donohue JH: Breast cancer: presentation and intervention in women with gastrointestinal metastasis and carcinomatosis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2005, 12: 886-894. 10.1245/ASO.2005.03.030.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin CP, Cheng JS, Lai KH, Lo GH, Hsu PI, Chan HH, Hsu JH, Wang YY, Pan HB, Tseng HH: Gastrointestinal metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma: radiological and endoscopic studies of 11 cases. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000, 15: 536-541. 10.1046/j.1440-1746.2000.02152.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Senadhi V, Dutta S: Testicular seminoma metastasis to the gastrointestinal tract and the necessity of surgery. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2012, 43: 499-501. 10.1007/s12029-011-9274-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozdilekcan C, Songür N, Memiş L, Bozdoğan N, Köksal AS, Ok U: Lung cancer associated with a single simultaneous solitary metastatic lesion in stomach: a case report with the review of literature. Tuberk Toraks. 2010, 58: 78-84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Misra SP, Dwivedi M, Misra V, Dharmani S, Gupta M: Duodenal metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: endoscopic management of bleeding and biliary and duodenal obstruction. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2004, 23: 185-186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Amuluru K, Gupta H: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2010, 41: 24-26. 10.1007/s12029-009-9097-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karaca G, Pekcici MR, Özer H, Köklü S, Kavlakoğlu B, Astarci M, Güler O: Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach in a 68-years-old man. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2011, 11: 119-120. 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2010.00642.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- von Delius S, Lersch C, Neu B, Huber W, Eckel F, Pitzl H, Fend F, Gaa J, Schmid RM: Squamous-cell carcinoma of the duodenum as a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy. 2006, 38: 956-10.1055/s-2006-925161.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jindal S, Vij V, Singhal D, Chaudhary A: Squamous cell carcinoma of stomach. Trop Gastroenterol. 2006, 27: 91-92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oono Y, Fu K, Nagahisa E, Kuwata T, Ikematsu H, Yano T, Kojima T, Minashi K, Fujii S, Ochiai A, Kaneko K: Primary gastric squamous cell carcinoma in situ originating from gastric squamous metaplasia. Endoscopy. 2010, 42 (Suppl 2): E290-E291.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kim HS, Jang WI, Hong HS, Lee CI, Lee DK, Yong SJ, Shin KC, Shim YH: Metastatic involvement of the stomach secondary to lung carcinoma. J Korean Med Sci. 1993, 8: 24-29.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rossi G, Marchioni A, Romagnani E, Bertolini F, Longo L, Cavazza A, Barbieri F: Primary lung cancer presenting with gastrointestinal tract involvement: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features in a series of 18 consecutive cases. J Thorac Oncol. 2007, 2: 115-120. 10.1097/JTO.0b013e318074de1b.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Al-Zahrani IH: The value of immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, CK7 and CK20 in the diagnosis of primary and secondary lung carcinomas. Saudi Med J. 2008, 29: 957-961.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kanthan R, Senger JL, Diudea D, Kanthan S: A review of duodenal metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix presenting as an upper gastrointestinal bleed. World J Surg Oncol. 2011, 9: 113-10.1186/1477-7819-9-113.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gevaert O, Daemen A, De Moor B, Libbrecht L: A taxonomy of epithelial human cancer and their metastases. BMC Med Genomics. 2009, 2: 69-10.1186/1755-8794-2-69.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang YC, Chang PM, Lee IC, Yang CF, Tzeng CH, Yang MH: Duodenal squamous cell carcinoma derived from the hypopharynx: immunohistochemical assessment of metastatic mechanisms. Gastrointest Endosc. 2010, 72: 460-463. 10.1016/j.gie.2009.11.036.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.