Bilateral metastasis to the femoral head as the only manifestation of recurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma: a case report
© Fernández-Aceñero and Aramendi Sánchez; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2003
Received: 28 July 2003
Accepted: 18 September 2003
Published: 18 September 2003
Metastases to the bone as the sole manifestation of recurrence of a gastric carcinoma are extremely rare.
We herein report the case of a 63-year-old man operated a year and a half before for a poorly differentiated gastric carcinoma affecting the fundus, who developed bilateral metastasis to the femoral head as the sole manifestation of recurrence. He was treated with radiotherapy to control pain with a poor response and both femoral heads had to be eventually resected.
We review the literature on the rare occurrence of osseous metastasis from gastric carcinoma and comment briefly on the therapeutic options for these cases.
Gastric carcinoma is a frequent tumor, specially in some parts of the world, like Japan . Metastasis to the bone from gastric tumors seem to be rare and have been estimated to appear in 13.4% of the autopsy cases of gastric carcinoma in a Japanese study . It mainly affects patients with poorly differentiated tumors and widespread disease along with metastasis to other sites . Another study on resected tumors rendered a 1.2% incidence of osseous metastasis . Metastases to the bone can occasionally be the first manifestation of the gastric tumor [4–6], but have only rarely been described as the sole manifestation of tumor recurrence [7, 8]. We herein report a rather unusual case of synchronous bilateral femoral head metastases from gastric carcinoma 1 1/2 years after successful resection of the tumor without evidence of recurrence elsewhere.
A 61-year-old man consulted on weight loss and dysphagia. He referred no medical antecedents of interest, other than hypertension under medical and dietetical control and renal stones. He was a moderate smoker (< 10 cigarrettes/day) and a social drinker. The barium swallow revealed a sliding hiatal hernia with a repletion defect inside. Endoscopy confirmed the presence of a huge mass in the herniated gastric fundus, and biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma. As the extension study (including CT scan) showed no metastasis, gastrectomy with distal esophagectomy was undertaken. Histological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed the diagnosis of poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells TNM stage IIIA (T3N1M0). The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged. Two months after surgery he received 6 cycles of chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, cisplatin and etoposide) with a good tolerance.
Metastasis to the bone from gastric carcinoma seem to be rather rare, with an incidence under 14% in autopsy series . Osseous metastases are more frequent in poorly-differentiated tumors and usually develop within two years of initial diagnosis . However, there have also been reports of bone metastasis from early gastric cancer . The thoracic and lumbar vertebrae seem to be the most frequent site , although there have been occasional reports of metastasis to the calcaneal bone , the pelvis  and even the skull base . Prognosis of patients with osseous metastasis from gastric carcinoma seems to be dismal (median survival time 5 months) and 3 years and a half has been the longest survival period reported in the literature . Radiotherapy has been advocated as the best therapeutic alternative for pain control with a response rate of 75% . However, recent reports  have employed chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil with no adverse severe side effects. Nevertheless, prognosis remains poor and therapy is mainly aimed at relieving pain and discomfort. We have found no references in the literature to surgical resection of osseous metastasis from gastric carcinomas, but this was the only alternative in our patient, for he seemed to be unresponsive to radiotherapy.
We herein report a new and rather unusual case of bilateral femoral metastasis from a gastric carcinoma resected one year and a half before. Reported cases are very few and no therapeutic recommendations are universally accepted, although both radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been employed. Nevertheless, prognosis of patients with bone metastasis from gastric tumors seems to be dismal and treatment is only aimed at ameliorating pain and possible complications from metastasis.
- Kelley JR, Duggan JM: Gastric cancer epidemiology and risk factors. J Clin Epidemiol. 2003, 56: 1-9. 10.1016/S0895-4356(02)00534-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nishidoi H, Koga S: Clinicopathological study of gastric cancer with bone metastasis. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1987, 14: 1717-22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshikawa K, Kitaoka H: Bone metastasis of gastric cancer. Jpn J Surg. 1983, 13: 173-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bergqvist D, Mattson J: Solitary calcaneal metastasis as the first sign of gastric cancer. Ups J Med Sci. 1978, 83: 115-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sagara K, Fujiyama S, Kin F, Sato T: An unusual case of gastric carcinoma initially presenting bone metastasis and later transverse myelopathy. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 1985, 15: 133-41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chung YS, Choi TY, Ha CY, Kim HM, Le KJ, Park CH, Fitzpatrick LA: An unusual case of osteoblastic metastasis from gastric carcinoma. Yonsei Med J. 2002, 43: 377-80.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Birla RK, Bowden L: Solitary bony metastasis as the first sign of malignant gastric tumor recurrence. Ann Surg. 1975, 182: 45-9.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kammori M, Seto Y, Haniuda N, Kawahara M, Takubo K, Ebdo H: A case of bone metastasis from gastric carcinoma after a nine-year-disease free interval. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2001, 31: 407-9. 10.1093/jjco/hye074.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kobayashi M, Araki K, Matsuura K, Kawai S, Moriki T: Early gastric cancer giving rise to bone and brain metastases: a review of the Japanese Literature. Hepatogastroenterology. 2002, 49: 1751-54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hirai O, Kikuchi H, Hashimoto N: Skull base metastasis from gastric cancer: Case report. Neurol Med Cir. 1992, 32: 908-10.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Murai N, Koga K, Nagamachi S, Nishikawa K, Matsuki K, Kusumoto S: Radiotherapy in bone metastasis with special reference to its effect on relieving pain. Gan No Rinsho. 1989, 35: 1149-52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maekawa Y, Furya Y, Toyokawa A, Kinugasa T, Fukano S, Sekimoto K: A case of gastric cancer with multiple bone metastasis treated by 5-fluorouracil infusion combined with pamidronate. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1998, 25: 1959-63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.