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Table 3 Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of risk factors for PAL in the training cohort

From: Construction and validation of a nomogram for predicting prolonged air leak after minimally invasive pulmonary resection

Variables PAL rate (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
Age 15.6 1.029 1.016–1.043 < 0.001 1.020 1.004–1.037 0.013
Gender     < 0.001    0.819
 Female 12.7 Ref.    Ref.   
 Male 19.6 1.665 1.276–2.174   0.951 0.619–1.462  
BMI 15.6 0.914 0.875–0.955 < 0.001 0.884 0.842–0.928 < 0.001
Smoking history     < 0.001    0.030
 Non-smoker 12.5 Ref.    Ref.   
 Smoker 24.3 2.239 1.697–2.955   1.628 1.048–2.531  
Hypertension     0.299    
 No 15.0 Ref.      
 Yes 17.1 1.166 0.872–1.559     
Diabetes mellitus     0.996    
 No 15.6 Ref.      
 Yes 15.6 0.996 0.676–1.467     
COPD     0.022    0.080
 No 15.4 Ref.    Ref.   
 Yes 37.5 3.299 1.188–9.157   2.836 0.883–9.107  
Neoadjuvant therapy     0.063    0.753
 No 15.4 Ref.    Ref.   
 Yes 28.6 2.201 0.959–5.052   0.862 0.343–2.165  
History of thoracic surgery     0.404    
 No 15.7 Ref.      
 Yes 9.1 0.537 0.125–2.313     
FEV1 % predicted 15.6 0.983 0.976–0.991 < 0.001 0.991 0.981–1.000 0.046
MVV% predicted 15.6 0.989 0.983–0.996 0.002 0.999 0.994–1.004 0.639
Blood type     0.195    0.166
 A 17.3 Ref.    Ref.   
 B 15.2 0.857 0.617–1.189   0.877 0.618–1.244  
 AB 10.3 0.548 0.315–0.955   0.509 0.282–0.919  
 O 16.2 0.923 0.652–1.306   0.912 0.627–1.326  
Lymphocyte 15.6 0.804 0.631–1.023 0.076 0.902 0.697–1.168 0.433
Albumin 15.6 1.015 0.986–1.046 0.313    
PNI 15.6 0.999 0.975–1.024 0.955    
ASA score     0.007    0.264
 I 11.7 Ref.    Ref.   
 II 15.5 1.385 0.841–2.282   0.879 0.497–1.555  
 III 31.8 3.512 1.587–7.775   1.590 0.622–4.063  
Surgical technique     0.316    
 RATS 16.9 Ref.      
 VATS 15.0 0.867 0.657–1.145     
Surgical procedure     < 0.001    < 0.001
 Sublobar resection 8.7 Ref.    Ref.   
 Lobectomy 21.7 2.903 2.159–3.902   2.100 1.424–3.096  
Surgical range     0.001    0.002
 Mono-lobe 14.4 Ref.    Ref.   
 Multi-lobe 22.9 1.764 1.258–2.473   1.820 1.251–2.648  
Operation side     0.141    0.035
 Left-sided 17.2 Ref.    Ref.   
 Right-sided 14.5 0.818 0.625–1.069   0.730 0.545–0.977  
Operation duration 15.6 1.012 1.009–1.016 < 0.001 1.009 1.005–1.012 < 0.001
Number of LN dissected 15.6 1.076 1.051–1.102 < 0.001 1.019 0.989–1.050 0.224
Tumor size 15.6 1.340 1.210–1.484 < 0.001 1.038 0.921–1.171 0.539
  1. PAL prolonged air leak, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, MVV maximal voluntary ventilation, PNI prognostic nutritional index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, RATS robotic-assisted thoracic surgery, VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery, LN lymph node