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Table 1 Preoperative information, intraoperative events and PHLF of patients in the training cohort (n = 343), internal validation cohort (n = 171), and external validation cohort (n = 97)

From: An mALBI-Child–Pugh-based nomogram for predicting post-hepatectomy liver failure grade B–C in patients with huge hepatocellular carcinoma: a multi-institutional study

Variables Training cohort (n = 343) Internal validation cohort (n = 171) External validation cohort (n = 97)
Age, years 56 (12.0) 54 (11.5) 51 (13.9)
Sex Male 298 (86.9) 150 (87.7) 81 (83.5)
Female 45 (13.1) 21 (12.3) 16 (16.5)
Albumin, g/L 40.6 (24.0–53.0) 38.0 (26.5–49.1) 41.2 (25.0–48.7)
Total bilirubin, µmol/L 12.4 (3.1–109.4) 13.6 (5.5–37.2) 12.0 (4.7–51.4)
ALT, U/L 32.4 (5.2–351.0) 31.0 (5.0–144.0) 32.4 (7.2–334.0)
AST, U/L 41.1 (13.0–251.4) 45.0 (14.0–599.0) 38.0 (10.4–308.0)
γ-GT, U/L 102.0 (16.0–1330.0) 94.0 (26.0–969.0) 93.0 (14.0–698.0)
PT, s 12.2 (9.4–19.0) 12.8 (10.9–18.0) 12.0 (10.1–15.2)
INR 1.08 (0.86–1.68) 1.04 (0.86–1.60) 1.07 (0.91–1.34)
Hilar occlusion, min 22 (0–79) 18 (0–96) 25 (0–90)
Intraoperative blood loss, ml 300 (20–4000) 650 (100–8850) 200 (20–2500)
Extent of resection Major 308 (89.8) 158 (92.3) 87 (89.7)
Minor 35 (10.2) 13 (7.6) 10 (10.3)
Type of hepatectomy Laparoscopic 5 (1.5) 2 (1.1) 0 (0)
Open 338 (98.5) 169 (98.8) 97 (100.0)
Cirrhosis Yes 250 (72.9) 115 (67.3) 86 (88.7)
No 93 (27.1) 56 (32.7) 11 (11.3)
HBsAg Positive 241 (70.3) 127 (74.3) 75 (77.3)
Negative 102 (29.7) 44 (25.7) 22 (22.7)
HBeAg Positive 48 (14.0) 29 (17.0) 11 (11.3)
Negative 295 (86.0) 142 (83.0) 86 (88.7)
HBV DNA Positive 213 (62.1) 104 (60.8) 65 (67.0)
Negative 130 (37.9) 67 (39.2) 32 (33.0)
No. of tumors Single 191 (55.7) 103 (60.2) 66 (68.0)
Multiple 152 (44.3) 68 (39.8) 31 (32.0)
BCLC stage A 151 (44.0) 59 (34.5) 44 (45.4)
B 74 (21.6) 28 (16.4) 19 (19.6)
C 118 (34.4) 84 (49.1) 34 (35.1)
AFP, ng/mL  < 20 118 (34.4) 53 (31.0) 29 (29.9)
20–400 76 (22.2) 41 (24.0) 17 (17.5)
 > 400 149 (43.3) 77 (45.0) 51 (52.6)
mALBI grade 1 233 (67.9) 120 (70.2) 36 (37.1)
2a 75 (21.9) 41 (24.0) 40 (41.2)
2b 35 (10.2) 10 (5.8) 21 (21.6)
Child–Pugh scores A 327 (95.3) 166 (97.1) 91 (93.8)
B 16 (4.7) 5 (2.9) 6 (6.2)
PHLF, grade B–C Yes 52 (15.2) 22 (12.9) 23 (23.7)
No 291 (84.8) 149 (87.1) 74 (76.3)
  1. Categorical variables are summarized as n (%). Continuous variables are summarized as median (range) or mean (standard deviation), as appropriate. Pearson χ2, Fisher’s exact, and Mann–Whitney U (Wilcoxon rank sum test) tests were used, as appropriate
  2. AFP α-fetoprotein, mALBI Modified albumin-bilirubin, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, AST Aspartate transaminase, γ-GT gamma-glutamyl transferase, PT Prothrombin time, INR International normalized ratio, PHLF Post-hepatectomy liver failure