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Table 3 Comparison of baseline data between training and validation group

From: Computed tomography-guided cutting needle biopsy for lung nodules: when the biopsy-based benign results are real benign

  Training group Validation group p-value
Patients number 96 57  
Age (year) 57.5 ± 12.3 58.2 ± 10.6 0.750
Sex (male/female) 54/42 33/24 0.843
Smoker 39 29 0.217
Imaging feature
 Size (mm) 18.6 ± 5.7 17.8 ± 6.0 0.434
 Solid/sub-solid 94/2 55/2 0.992
 Spiculation 47 29 0.818
 Pleural retraction sign 39 20 0.496
 Cavity 8 7 0.427
 Calcification 15 3 0.054
 Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodule (≥ 10 mm) 21 9 0.359
 Emphysema 20 14 0.592
Nodule location
 Right lung/left lung 48/48 32/25 0.462
 Upper lobe/non-upper lobe 45/51 28/29 0.788
Details of biopsy procedure
 Lesion — pleura distance (mm) 16.1 ± 14.6 17.5 ± 13.8 0.558
 Needle — pleura angle (degrees) 68.3 ± 20.1 67.2 ± 19.4 0.733
 Number of specimen 1.5 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.5 0.381
 Pneumothorax 15 8 0.790
 Hemoptysis 21 14 0.702
Tumor marker
 Abnormal CEA (normal: 0–5 ug/L) 11 7 0.879
 Abnormal Cyfra21-1 (normal: 0–3.3 ng/ml) 9 7 0.570
 Abnormal SCC (normal: 0–2.5 ug/L) 4 2 1.000
 Abnormal NSE (normal: 0–16.3 ng/ml) 2 2 0.992
Pathological feature of biopsy
 Granulomatous inflammation 46 30 0.948
 Chronic inflammation with alveolar epithelial hyperplasia 17 13 0.442
 True negative/false negative 82/14 47/10 0.626
  1. CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, SCC squamous cell carcinoma antigen, NSE neuron-specific enolase