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Table 1 Comparison of baseline data between true and false negatives in training group

From: Computed tomography-guided cutting needle biopsy for lung nodules: when the biopsy-based benign results are real benign

  True negative False negative p-value
Patients number 82 14  
Age (year) 56.3 ± 12.8 64.7 ± 5.3 < 0.001
Sex (male/female) 47/35 7/7 0.610
Smoker 34 5 0.686
Imaging feature
 Size (mm) 18.5 ± 5.8 18.6 ± 5.2 0.989
 Solid/sub-solid 81/1 13/1 0.272
 Spiculation 38 9 0.214
 Pleural retraction sign 32 7 0.440
 Cavity 7 1 1.000
 Calcification 15 0 0.179
 Enlarged hilar or mediastinal lymph nodule (≥ 10 mm) 16 5 0.315
 Emphysema 17 3 1.000
 Uptake in PET-CT (SUVmax ≥ 2.5) 18 (n = 35)a 3 (n = 8)a 0.750
Nodule location
 Right lung/left lung 41/41 7/7 1.000
 Upper lobe/non-upper lobe 39/43 6/8 0.744
Details of biopsy procedure
 Lesion — pleura distance (mm) 15.5 ± 14.6 19.5 ± 14.5 0.340
 Needle — pleura angle (degrees) 69.0 ± 19.3 64.4 ± 24.5 0.420
 Number of specimen 1.6 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.5 0.154
 Pneumothorax 12 3 0.803
 Hemoptysis 16 5 0.315
Tumor marker
 Abnormal CEA (normal: 0–5 ug/L) 6 5 0.009
 Abnormal Cyfra21-1 (normal: 0–3.3 ng/ml) 7 2 0.852
 Abnormal SCC (normal: 0–2.5 ug/L) 1 3 0.009
 Abnormal NSE (normal: 0–16.3 ng/ml) 2 0 1.000
Pathological feature of biopsy
 Granulomatous inflammation 45 1 0.001
 Chronic inflammation with alveolar epithelial hyperplasia 14 3 0.987
  1. CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, CT computed tomography, NSE neuron-specific enolase, PET positron emission tomography, SCC squamous cell carcinoma antigen, SUV standardized uptake value
  2. aThirty-five and 8 patients underwent PET-CT examination in true- and false-negative groups, respectively