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Table 1 The clinicopathologic characteristics of patients in the development cohort and the validation cohort

From: Development and validation of nomogram to predict very early recurrence of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma after hepatic resection: a multi-institutional study

Variables Development cohort (n = 131) Validation cohort
(n = 90)
P value
Gender, male, n (%) 117 (89.3%) 70 (77.8%) 0.032
Age [year, mean (IQR)] 52.0 [46.0, 60.5] 52.5 [45.0, 63.0] 0.541
Hepatitis
 NBNC, n (%) 16 (12.2%) 14 (15.6%) 0.756
 HBV, n (%) 113 (86.3%) 75 (83.3%)
 HCV, n (%) 2 (1.5%) 1 (1.1%)
 NAFLD, n (%) 5 (3.8%) 6 (6.7%) 0.521
 Cirrhosis, n (%) 80.0 (61.1%) 69.0 (76.7%) 0.022
Resection type
 Minor resection, n (%) 44 (33.6%) 34 (37.8%) 0.619
 Major resection, n (%) 87 (66.4%) 56 (62.2%)
Lymph node dissection, n (%) 19 (14.5%) 21 (23.3%) 0.134
Tumor number, multiple, n (%) 34 (26.0%) 25 (27.8%) 0.884
Tumor size [cm, mean (IQR)] 5.10 [3.60, 7.35] 5.30 [3.03, 9.00] 0.737
Tumor capsule, present, n (%) 85 (64.9%) 39 (43.3%) 0.002
Microvascular invasion, n (%) 77 (58.8%) 64 (71.1%) 0.083
Macrovascular invasion, n (%) 23 (17.6%) 31 (34.4%) 0.007
Satellite nodules, n (%) 48 (36.6%) 28 (31.1%) 0.480
Edmondson-Steiner classification
 I/II, n (%) 107 (81.7%) 67 (74.4%) 0.261
 III/IV, n (%) 24 (18.3%) 23 (25.6%)
RBC[10^12/L, mean (IQR)] 4.63 [4.40, 4.92] 4.74 [4.29, 5.12] 0.615
Hb[g/L, mean (IQR)] 143 [133, 150] 145 [132, 155] 0.781
PLT[10^9/L, mean (IQR)] 175 [127, 235] 180 [126, 216] 0.994
Neutrophil count[10^9/L, mean (IQR)] 3.77 [3.09, 4.76] 3.97 [2.85, 5.36] 0.116
Lymphocyte count [10^9/L, mean (IQR)] 1.59 [1.16, 1.92] 1.42 [1.15, 1.83] 0.705
NLR[ratio, mean (IQR)] 2.42 [1.74, 3.45] 2.53 [1.66, 3.78] 0.227
AST[U/L, mean (IQR)] 39.4 [39.4, 126] 34.5 [25.0, 58.0] 0.133
PT[s, mean (IQR)] 11.5 [11.0, 12.1] 13.4 [12.8, 14.1] < 0.001
TB[umol/L, mean (IQR)] 13.3 [10.5, 18.1] 7.00 [3.80, 12.1] 0.870
ALB[g/L, mean (IQR)] 41.4 [39.0, 44.5] 39.5 [36.0, 42.8] < 0.001
GGT[U/L, mean (IQR)] 66.0 [33.5, 138] 65.0 [42.0, 128] 0.171
ALP[U/L, mean (IQR)] 87.0 [69.5, 118] 94.0 [74.3, 117] 0.339
AFP[ng/mL, mean (IQR)] 51.0 [7.95, 373] 76.5 [9.13, 1540] 0.250
CEA[ng/mL, mean (IQR)] 2.50 [1.70, 3.70] 2.86 [1.70, 4.40] 0.725
CA19-9[U/mL, mean (IQR)] 27.7 [13.8, 71.3] 20.4 [10.2, 44.8] 0.986
DCP[mAU/mL, mean (IQR)] 64.0 [23.0, 412] 110 [40.0, 940] 0.057
Intraoperative blood loss [mL, mean (IQR)] 200 [100, 300] 200 [100, 288] 0.105
Intraoperative blood transfusion, n (%) 37 (28.2%) 33 (36.7%) 0.240
Child-Pugh
 A, n (%) 130 (99.2%) 83 (92.2%) 0.018
 B, n (%) 1 (0.8%) 7 (7.8%)
AJCC 8th
 IA-II, n (%) 111 (84.7%) 71 (78.9%) 0.347
 III-IV, n (%) 20 (15.3%) 19 (21.1%)
  1. Continuous variables were presented as number (percentage) and compared using the chi-square test or Fisher exact test. Normally distributed continuous variables were presented as mean (standard deviation, IQR). HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, RBC red blood cell, Hb hemoglobin, PLT platelet count, NLR neutrophils/lymphocytes ratio, AST aspartate aminotransferase, PT prothrombin time, TB total bilirubin, ALB albumin, GGT gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9, DCP decarboxylic prothrombin, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer