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Table 1 Descriptive and univariable analyses

From: Risk scores to predict mortality 2 and 5 years after surgery for colorectal cancer in elderly patients

  Descriptive analysis Unadjusted analysis
Mortality up to 2 years Mortality within 2–5 years
n (%) HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Age (years)* 83.24 (2.93) 1.08 (1.02, 1.15) 0.01 1.04 (0.97, 1.11) 0.28
BMI* 27.20 (4.04) 1 (0.94, 1.06) 0.99 0.98 (0.92, 1.03) 0.40
BMI
 ≤ 25 101 (23.71) Reference   Reference  
 25–30 156 (36.62) 0.96 (0.56, 1.67) 0.89 0.97 (0.59, 1.58) 0.90
 > 30 72 (16.90) 0.87 (0.44, 1.74) 0.70 0.69 (0.36, 1.32) 0.26
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 197 (55.49) Reference    
 Current smoker 14 (3.94) 0.67 (0.16, 2.75) 0.57 0.48 (0.12, 1.97) 0.31
 Ex-smoker 144 (40.56) 1.38 (0.91, 2.10) 0.13 1.20 (0.79, 1.81) 0.39
Alcoholism
 No 315 (91.30) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 30 (8.70) 1.86 (0.99, 3.49) 0.06 1.19 (0.55, 2.58) 0.65
Charlson comorbidity index
 ≤ 5 389 (91.31) Reference   Reference  
 > 5 37 (8.69) 2.03 (1.13, 3.64) 0.02 2.36 (1.26, 4.42) 0.008
Haemoglobin at baseline (g/dl) and localisation
 > 10 and rectum cancer 93 (21.93) 1.18 (0.69, 2.02) 0.54 0.99 (0.60, 1.65) 0.98
 > 10 and colon cancer 250 (58.96) Reference   Reference  
 ≤ 10 and rectum cancer 7 (1.65) 1.69 (0.41, 6.96) 0.47 0.68 (0.09, 4.9) 0.70
 ≤ 10 and colon cancer 74 (17.45) 2.36 (1.46, 3.83) 0.0001 1.44 (0.84, 2.48) 0.19
Length of stay, days** 11 (8-17) 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) < 0.001 1.02 (1.01, 1.04) 0.010
ASA
 I, II, III 380 (91.79) Reference   Reference  
 IV 34 (8.21) 2.28 (1.27, 4.11) 0.006 1.24 (0.57, 2.67) 0.58
Invasion: vascular, perineural, lymphatic
 0, 1 374 (87.79) Reference   Reference  
 2, 3 52 (12.21) 2.45 (1.25, 4.78) < 0.001 1.88 (1.03, 3.44) 0.04
Residual tumour classification
 R0 376 (91.48) Reference   Reference  
 R1 19 (4.62) 2.21 (0.96, 5.10) 0.06 3.87 (1.79, 8.37) < 0.001
 R2 16 (3.89) 11.15 (6.09, 20.40) < 0.001 19.72 (4.63, 84.08) < 0.001
TNM
 0, I, II 248 (58.77) Reference   Reference  
 III 140 (33.18) 2.24 (1.39, 3.59) < 0.001 1.30 (0.85, 1.99) 0.23
 IV 34 (8.06) 6.55 (3.72, 11.53) < 0.001 1.73 (0.70, 4.32) 0.24
LODDS
 Less than − 1.36 329 (82.66) Reference   Reference  
 (− 1.36, − 0.53] 34 (8.54) 2.96 (1.60, 5.43) < 0.001 2.49 (1.32, 4.68) 0.005
 Greater than − 0.53 35 (8.79) 4.73 (2.73, 8.21) < 0.001 1.90 (0.86, 4.21) 0.11
Recurrence of the tumour up to 1 year
 No 357 (87.71) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 50 (12.29) 5.07 (3.28, 7.83) < 0.001 2.31 (1.17, 4.60) 0.02
Complications during admission
 No 187 (43.90) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 239 (56.10) 1.48 (0.97, 2.25) 0.07 1.22 (0.82, 1.81) 0.34
Readmission within 30 days
 No 382 (91.39) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 36 (8.61) 1.77 (0.97, 3.25) 0.06 1.87 (0.99, 3.50) 0.051
Pre-intervention radiotherapy
 No 390 (91.55) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 36 (8.45) 0.44 (0.16, 1.21) 0.11 0.55 (0.24, 1.26) 0.16
Post-intervention radiotherapy
 No 416 (97.65) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 10 (2.35) 1.32 (0.42, 4.15) 0.64 0.43 (0.06, 3.11) 0.41
Pre-intervention chemotherapy
 No 380 (93.83) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 25 (6.17) 0.32 (0.08, 1.30) 0.11 0.49 (0.18, 1.31) 0.15
Post-intervention chemotherapy
 No 345 (58.19) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 60 (14.81) 1.31 (0.76, 2.25) 0.33 1.06 (0.60, 1.87) 0.84
Age at baseline & radiotherapy treatment within the 2-year follow-up
 < 85 years 300 (70.42) Reference   Reference  
 85–89 years with no radiotherapy 100 (23.47) 1.61 (1.03, 2.53) 0.04 1.69 (1.08, 2.63) 0.02
 85–89 years with radiotherapy or ≥ 90 years 26 (6.10) 1.28 (0.55, 2.96) 0.57 0.81 (0.29, 2.22) 0.68
Diagnosis tests performed within the first year of follow-up
 No 104 (24.41) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 322 (75.59) 0.71 (0.44, 1.14) 0.15 0.62 (0.39, 0.98) 0.04
Any complication due to the treatment within the 2-year follow-up
 No 390 (91.55) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 36 (8.45) 2.15 (1.21, 3.80) 0.009 0.46 (0.24, 0.86) 0.01
Colostomy closure within the 2-year follow-up period
 No 401 (94.13) 1.56 (0.57, 4.26) 0.38 2.57 (0.81, 8.10) 0.11
 Yes 25 (5.87) Reference   Reference  
Medical complications within the 2-year follow-up period
 No 219 (51.41) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 207 (48.59) 1.47 (0.97, 2.21) 0.07 1.84 (1.23, 2.75) 0.003
Tumour recurrence within the 2-year follow-up period
 No recurrence 303 (82.11) Reference   Reference  
 Yes 66 (17.89) 5.50 (3.22, 9.39) < 0.001 3.16 (1.97, 5.04) < 0.001
Readmissions within the 2-year follow-up period
 No 284 (69.78) Reference   Reference  
 Only at 1 year or at 2nd year after the surgical intervention 105 (25.80) 3.22 (2.09, 4.95) < 0.001 1.43 (0.89, 2.29) 0.14
 At both measurements 18 (4.42) 4.14 (1.94, 8.83) < 0.001 2.24 (0.90, 5.54) 0.08
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval. *Mean (SD). **Median (p25, p75). ASA American Society of Anaesthesiologists Physical Status Classification System, TNM cancer stage, LODDS log odds of positive lymph nodes