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Table 1 Demographics and quality assessments of included studies

From: Laparoscopic procedure is associated with lower morbidity for simultaneous resection of colorectal cancer and liver metastases: an updated meta-analysis

Study, year Country Study
period
Study
design
Criteria Matched factorsb No. of participants (MH, %) Age, Mean (SD), y Female, No. (%) Quality
score
Inclusion Exclusiona
Lap Open Lap Open Lap Open
Ma et al. [23], 2018 China 2014–2017 PSM (R, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM 1–3 1–3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 15–17, 21, 22,24–26 12 (25) 12 (33) 3c (25) 1c (8) 3 (25) 4 (33) 8
Ivanecz et al [20], .2018 Slovenia 2000–2016 PSM (P, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM 4–6 1–3, 5, 7, 10–12, 15, 20–27 10 (0) 10 (0) 62 (8) 65 (8) 4 (40) 4 (40) 8
Xu et al. [26], 2017 China 2009–2014 PSM (R, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM 5, 7 1–3, 5–7, 9, 10, 12, 15–17, 20–22,24– 26, 28 20 (25) 20 (20) 58 (11) 60 (11) 7 (35) 6 (30) 8
Chen et al [16], .2018 Taiwan, China 2009–2017 NM (R, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM 2, 6, 8–11 1, 2, 7, 11–13, 15, 17, 20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 29 16 (19) 22 (14) 66 (10) 65 (13) 6 (38) 13 (59) 6
Gorgun et al [17], .2017 USA 2006–2015 NM (P, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM NR 1, 2, 3, 7, 9–12, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22,24– 26, 28, 29 14 (14) 29 (14) 56 (3) 58 (3) 8 (57) 13 (45) 6
Ratti et al [24], .2016 Italy 2004–2015 PSM (P, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM 4, 12, 13 1–3, 5, 10, 12, 16– 18, 20–22, 24–26, 28, 29 25 (24) 50 (20) 60 (11) 61 (10) 11 (44) 23 (46) 8
Tranchart et al [25], .2016 France 1997–2013 PSM (R, M) Liver lesions ≤ 5 cm with segments II– VI 14 1, 2, 7, 10–12, 14, 16, 20, 21,24–26, 28,29 89 (8) 89 (6) 67 (11) 65 (9) 47 (53) 49 (55) 8
Lin et al [22], .2015 China 2008–2012 PSM (P, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM 15–18 1–3, 5, 7–16, 20, 21, 24–26, 28 7 (0) 36 (17) 60 (3) 57 (10) 2 (29) 15 (58) 8
Jung et al [21], .2013 Korea 2008–2012 CM (P, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM 5, 19 1, 2, 7, 9–12, 16, 19– 21, 24, 25, 27, 28 24 (25) 24 (25) 60 (43–75) 60 (37–80) 11 (46) 7 (29) 6
Hu et al. [18], 2012 China 2004–2008 CM (R, M) Metastasis restricted to the left lobe or a segment in the right lobe with size < 6 cm 6, 20, 21, 22 1, 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, 15, 17–19, 28 13 (15) 13 (15) 54 (10) 53 (11) 3 (23) 4 (31) 8
Huh et al [19], .2011 Korea 2003–2008 CM (P, S) Primary CRC and SCRLM NR 1–3, 5, 7, 9–16, 25, 28 20d (NR) 20 (NR) 63 (36– 71) 62 (44–85) 7 (35) 5 (25) 8
Chen et al [15], .2011 China 1999–2005 CM (R, S) Rectal tumor fit for Dixon’s surgery and the number of liver lesions ≤ 2 21, 23, 24 1–10, 13–16 23 (26) 18 (NR) 55 (10) 53 (9) 5 (22) 4 (22) 8
  1. CRC Colorectal cancer, SCRLM Synchronous liver metastases, CM Case-matched, PSM Propensity score matching, MH Major hepatectomy (≥ 3 segments), P prospectively collected data, R retrospectively collected data, M multicenters, S single center, NR not report
  2. aExclusion criteria are defined as follows: (1) loss to follow-up; (2) with other malignant tumors; (3) combined multiple organ resection;(4) two stage approaches (colorectal first or liver first; (5) combined radiofrequency ablation; (6) extrahepatic metastases; (7) the application of mixed approaches, initially unresectable SCRLM; (8) with hepatic cellular cancer; (9) with neuroendocrine tumor; (10) with benign liver tumor; (11) with peritoneum seeding; (12) mixed approach (laparoscopic colorectal resection and open hepatectomy or vice versa); (13) follow-up< 12 months; (14) tumors close to the portal pedicle or hepatic veins; (15) incomplete material; (16) with obstructive colorectal cancer; (17) with cancer perforation; (18) with T4 colorectal cancer; (19) minor procedures performed by colorectal surgeon only(liver biopsy or wedge resection of synchronous liver metastases in the liver edge); (20) liver metastasis located in the right hemiliver at a size of > 6cm or requiring the resection of > 2 segments; (21) with a previous history of abdominal surgery or tuberculous peritonitis; (22) with serious cardiopulmonary insufficiency; (23)the rectal tumor fit for Mile’s surgery; (24) the number of liver lesions ≥ 3
  3. bMatched factors means the covariate was matched or the difference of the covariate was not statistically significant between two groups and are defined as follows: (1) age; (2) sex; (3) carcinoembryonic antigen; (4) distance between rectal tumors and anus; (5) tumor differentiation; (6) child class; (7) liver metastases size; (8) location of liver metastases (segments 1, 2 ,3, 4b, 4a, 5 ,6, 7, 8); (9) primary tumor size; (10) location of primary tumor (colon/rectum); (11) body mass index; (12) American Society of Anesthesiologists; (13) lymphovascular invasion; (14) depth of primary tumor invasion; (15) postoperative chemotherapy; (16) distribution of metastases (unilobar/bilobar); (17) primary tumor stage; (18) comorbid disease; (19) previous abdomen surgery; (20) types of colorectal and hepatic surgery; (21) number of liver metastases; (22) preoperative chemotherapy; (23) location of liver metastases (anterolateral/posterosuperior); (24) primary tumor T stage; (25) primary nodal status; (26) neoadjuvant chemotherapy; (27) harvested lymph nodes; (28) the type of hepatoenterectomy; (29) recurrence
  4. cThe number (%) of patients > 60 years
  5. dSeven of the 20 patients underwent a total one-step laparoscopic procedure while 13 patients underwent laparoscopic colorectal resection and open liver resection