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Table 2 The pooled results of all outcomes

From: Meta-analysis of laparoscopic anterior resection with natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE-LAR) versus abdominal incision specimen extraction (AISE-LAR) for sigmoid or rectal tumors

Outcomes No. of studies No. of patients Pooled results WMD or OR (95%CI) P value Heterogeneity
NOSE-LAR AISE-LAR I2 (%) P value
Primary outcomes
Complication Overall postoperative complication 10 804 983 0.65 (0.46, 0.90) 0.01 5.0 0.40
Incision related complication 8 652 848 0.13 (0.05, 0.35) < 0.01 0 0.98
Anastomotic fistula 8 647 847 1.09 (0.61, 1.96) 0.78 0 0.81
Severe complication 2 157 136 0.22 (0.01, 3.66) 0.29 74.1 0.05
Pathologic outcomes Lymph nodes harvested 9 682 885 − 0.52 (− 1.09, 0.05) 0.07 0 0.64
Proximal resection margin 3 150 190 0.21 (− 0.73, 1.14) 0.67 0 0.82
Distal resection edge 4 215 322 0.17 (0.02, 0.33) 0.02 0 0.40
Secondary outcomes
Operation time 9 682 885 7.40 (0.17, 14.64) 0.04 69.9 < 0.01
Intraoperative blood loss 9 682 885 − 10.25 (− 23.22, 2.73) 0.12 89.7 < 0.01
Recovery of gastrointestinal function 6 545 691 − 0.38 (− 0.70, − 0.06) 0.02 89.6 < 0.01
Postoperative pain (POD 1) 4 159 242 − 1.64 (− 2.31, − 0.98) < 0.01 84.7 < 0.01
Additional analgesics usage 4 159 242 0.21 (0.11, 0.40) < 0.01 0 0.56
Hospital stay 9 682 885 − 0.71 (− 1.10, − 0.32) < 0.01 52.5 0.03
Five-year OS 2 174 150 0.69 (0.19, 2.45) 0.56 0 0.92
Five-year DFS 2 174 150 0.83 (0.41, 1.66) 0.59 0 0.55
  1. Abbreviations: NOSE-LAR laparoscopic anterior resection with natural orifice specimen extraction, AISE-LAR laparoscopic anterior resection with abdominal incision specimen extraction, WMD weighted mean difference, OR odds ratio, POD 1 postoperative day 1, OS overall survival, DFS disease-free survival