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Table 2 Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes

From: Short- and long-term outcomes for transvaginal specimen extraction versus minilaparotomy after robotic anterior resection for colorectal cancer: a mono-institution retrospective study

Parameters TVSE (n = 45) LAP (n = 45) p value
Type of operation, n (%)    0.832
 Anterior resection 25 (55.6) 26 (57.8)  
 Low anterior resection 20 (44.4) 19 (42.2)  
Operation time, min (mean ± SD) 149.1 ± 26.3 131.8 ± 18.3 < 0.001
Estimated blood loss, mL (mean ± SD) 64.9.0 ± 36.5 79.5 ± 43.7 0.087
Intraoperative morbidity, n (%) 4 (8.8) 3 (6.6) 0.694
Pain score, VAS (mean ± SD) 4.1 ± 1.3 5.3 ± 1.6 0.004
Additional analgesics required, n (%) 3 (6.7) 12 (26.7) 0.021
Time to first flatus, day (mean ± SD) 1.8 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.5 0.045
Time to regular diet, day (mean ± SD) 2.1 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 1.1 0.280
Hospital stay after surgery, day (mean ± SD) 8.5 ± 2.8 9.8 ± 4.9 0.115
Total hospital cost, US dollars (mean ± SD) 9014.5 9448.6 0.159
Total complications, n (%) 4 (8.9) 7 (15.6) 0.522
 Wound infection 0 2  
 Pulmonary infection 2 1  
 Intra-abdominal abscess 1 1  
 Anastomotic leakage 1 2  
 Ileus 0 1  
  1. TVSE totally robotic anterior resection with transvaginal specimen extraction, LAP robotic anterior resection with minilaparotomy, SD standard deviation; VAS visual analogue scale