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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the patient cohort

From: Natural disease progression and novel survival prediction model for hepatocellular carcinoma with spinal metastases: a 10-year single-center study

Clinical CharacteristicsTotal, n (%)Missing, n (%)Hazard ratio* (95% CI)3-month survival (%)6-month survival (%)12-month survival (%)P value**
Gender
 Male60 (87.0)0 (0)Reference45.033.316.70.520
 Female9 (13.0) 0.79 (0.39, 1.61)66.744.422.2 
Age group (years)       
 ≤ 60 years50 (72.5)0 (0)Reference52.038.022.00.036
 > 60 years19 (27.5) 1.78 (1.03, 3.08)36.826.35.3 
Karnofskys Performance Status
 Good17 (24.7)0 (0)Reference82.470.641.20.003
 Moderate25 (36.2) 2.29 (1.15, 4.54)48.028.012.0 
 Poor27 (39.1) 3.16 (1.63, 6.15)25.918.57.4 
Cirrhosis
 No21 (30.4)7 (10.2)Reference66.747.623.80.024
 Yes41 (59.4) 1.95 (1.08, 3.51)39.029.317.1 
Ascites       
 No33 (47.8)10 (14.5)Reference66.751.527.30.001
 Yes26 (37.7) 2.44 (1.39, 4.28)26.915.47.7 
Total bilirubin (mg/dL)
 < 2.055 (79.7)1 (1.5)Reference56.443.621.8< 0.001
 2.0–3.05 (7.2) 2.75 (1.06, 7.15)20.000 
 > 3.08 (11.6) 11.25 (4.39, 28.86)000 
Serum albumin (mg/dL)
 > 3.525 (36.2)1 (1.5)Reference68.056.024.00.056
 2.8–3.526 (37.7) 1.38 (0.78, 2.45)30.823.119.2 
 < 2.817 (24.6) 2.17 (1.14, 4.14)41.223.55.9 
Number of primary tumor
 Single tumor14 (20.3)2 (2.9)Reference71.450.035.70.018
 Multiple tumors53 (76.8) 2.20 (1.13, 4.29)43.432.113.2 
Portal vein involvement       
 No28 (40.6)11 (15.9)Reference71.450.025.00.196
 Yes30 (43.5) 1.43 (0.83, 2.45)33.326.716.7 
Visceral organ metastasis
 No35 (50.7)2 (2.9)Reference65.751.425.70.017
 Yes32 (46.4) 1.35 (1.05, 1.73)31.318.89.4 
Number of vertebral columns involved
 130 (43.5)3 (4.4)Reference53.340.020.00.751
 219 (27.5) 0.95 (0.52, 1.73)57.936.815.8 
 ≥ 317 (24.6) 1.21 (0.66, 2.22)35.329.417.7 
Number of extra spinal bone metastases
 032 (46.4)7 (10.2)Reference59.443.825.00.256
 1–221 (30.4) 1.52 (0.86, 2.69)42.933.314.3 
 ≥ 39 (13.0) 1.64 (0.74, 3.63)33.322.211.1 
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval
  2. *Hazard ratio from univariable Cox’s proportional hazard regression
  3. **P value from log-rank test