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Table 3 Subgroup-analysis by publication year, study design, and type of the procedure

From: A comparison between pylorus-preserving and distal gastrectomy in surgical safety and functional benefit with gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Items n   Test for overall effect Test for heterogeneity
OR/WMD (95%CI) Z P I2 P
Operative time
 Before 2010 3 − 8.22 (− 23.46, 7.01) 1.06 0.290 51.4 0.128
 After 2010 6 − 3.28 (− 14.91, 8.35) 0.55 0.580 76.6 0.001
   Retrospective cohort study 8 − 3.22 (− 13.68, 7.24) 0.60 0.547 71.9 0.001
   Non-retrospective cohort study 1 − 12.00 (− 16.29, − 7.71) 5.48 0.000 NA NA
 Laparoscopic 5 − 8.08 (− 22.21, 6.05) 1.12 0.262 69.2 0.011
 Open 4 − 1.25 (− 15.59, 13.09) 0.17 0.864 85.5 0.000
Blood loss       
 Before 2010 2 − 45.69 (− 94.15, 2.77) 1.85 0.065 74.0 0.050
 After 2010 5 − 5.16 (− 17.47, 7.15) 0.82 0.411 0.0 0.612
   Retrospective cohort study 6 − 6.01 (− 17.87, 5.85) 0.99 0.321 0.0 0.709
   Non-retrospective cohort study 1 − 67 (− 90.2, − 43.73) 5.64 0.000 NA NA
 Laparoscopic 4 − 3.6 (− 17.44, 10.24) 0.51 0.610 0.0 0.535
 Open 3 − 33.53 (− 73.60, 6.53) 1.64 0.101 81.6 0.004
Gastritis
 Before 2010 7 0.22 (0.06, 0.79) 2.31 0.021 75.0 0.001
 After 2010 1 0.23 (0.01, 6.09) 0.89 0.376 NA NA
   Retrospective cohort study 6 0.16 (0.07, 0.40) 3.98 0.000 13.9 0.325
   Non-retrospective cohort study 2 0.88 (0.13, 5.88) 0.13 0.898 45.9 0.174
 Laparoscopic 1 0.23 (0.01, 6.09) 0.89 0.376 NA NA
 Open 7 0.22 (0.06, 0.79) 2.31 0.021 75.0 0.001
Delayed gastric emptying
 Before2010 2 0.64 (0.21, 1.96) 0.79 0.430 0.0 0.832
 After2010 9 2.26 (1.43, 3.59) 3.46 0.001 34.6 0.141
 Retrospective cohort study 10 1.74 (1.09, 2.77) 2.31 0.021 41.6 0.080
   Non-retrospective cohort study 1 2.69 (1.04, 6.97) 2.04 0.041 NA NA
 Laparoscopic 7 3.03 (1.60, 5.73) 3.41 0.001 26.3 0.228
 Open 4 1.23 (0.69, 2.20) 0.69 0.492 32.0 0.220
 Length< 3 cm 1 0.56 (0.12, 2.72) 0.72 0.474 NA NA
 Length> 3 cm 7 2.34 (1.33, 4.13) 2.94 0.003 28.6 0.210
 Length NA 3 1.70 (0.84, 2.84) 1.48 0.138 60.3 0.080
Body weight change
 Before 2010 5 3.69 (2.53, 4.84) 6.26 0.000 0.0 0.429
 After 2010 3 2.22 (0.02, 4.43) 1.97 0.048 66.5 0.050
 Retrospective cohort study 7 3.18 (1.54, 4.83) 3.79 0.000 63.2 0.012
   Non-retrospective cohort study 1 3.70 (2.02, 5.38) 4.31 0.000 NA NA
 Laparoscopic 1 2.10 (0.06, 4.14) 2.02 0.043 NA NA
 Open 7 3.58 (1.84, 5.33) 4.03 0.000 70.3 0.003
  1. P < 0.05 are indicated in bold
  2. OR odds ratio, WMD weight mean difference, CI confidence interval, NA not applicable
  3. .