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Table 1 Risk of bias of studies included.

From: The effect and safety of preoperative biliary drainage in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma: an updated meta-analysis

ROBINS-I Yulong Cai Timothy J. Kennedy XuFeng Zhang Jun-Jie Xiong O. Farges Karolina Maria Wronka A. Ferrero C.H.Su S.Q.Li Dario Ribero R.W. parks Sander Dinant E.E. Hanafy G. Ercolani M.F. Gerhards Dong Chen
Bias due to confounding L S L L L M S S C L M S L S M L
Bias in selection of participants into the study L L L L M L S L L L L L L S L L
Bias in measurement of interventions L L L L M L L L L L L L L L L L
Bias due to departures from intended interventions L L L L L L L L L L L L L L M L
Bias due to missing data L S L L M M L L L M M M M L L L
Bias in measurement of outcomes L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L
Bias in selection of the reported results L M L L L L M S M M L S L M S M
Overall L S L L M M S S C M M S M S S M
  1. ROBINS-Irisk of bias in non-randomized studies of interventions, L low risk, M moderate risk, S serious risk, C critical risk