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Table 5 Prognostic factors for survival and recurrence of elderly patients

From: Prognoses, outcomes, and clinicopathological characteristics of very elderly patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatectomy

 Overall survivalRelapse-free survival
CharacteristicsUnivariate (p)Multivariate (p) (hazard ratio) (95% CI)Univariate (p)Multivariate (p) (hazard ratio) (95% CI)
Epidemiology    
 Sex, male0.62 0.66 
 HBs-Ag positive0.07 0.32 
 HCV-Ab positive0.52 0.87 
 NBNC0.12 0.63 
Biochemical factors    
 Platelets < 100,000/mm30.93 0.35 
 PA < 80%0.17 0.040.40 (1.163) (0.813–1.665)
 ChE < 180 IU/l< 0.01< 0.01 (2.530) (1.684–3.800)< 0.01< 0.01 (1.578) (1.125–2.214)
 Albumin < 3.5 g/dl< 0.010.58 (1.163) (0.679–1.992)< 0.010.29 (1.282) (0.802–2.050)
 ICGR15 ≥ 15%0.56 0.18 
 AFP ≥ 20 ng/ml< 0.010.03 (1.553) (1.041–2.315)< 0.010.55 (1.095) (0.811–1.480)
 PIVKA-II ≥ 400 mAU/ml< 0.010.63 (0.905) (0.596–1.373)< 0.010.94 (0.989) (0.732–1.337)
Tumor factors    
 Tumor size ≥ 10 cm< 0.010.01 (1.922) (1.128–3.274)< 0.010.01 (1.654) (1.102–2.484)
 Tumor number multiple< 0.010.02 (1.559) (1.049–2.316)< 0.01< 0.01 (2.223) (1.679–2.943)
 Macroscopic type except simple nodular0.11 < 0.010.13 (1.249) (0.931–1.675)
Histological factors    
 Differentiation, poor< 0.010.40 (1.179) (0.797–1.744)0.010.78 (0.959) (0.707–1.300)
 PVI< 0.01< 0.01 (2.653) (1.674–4.206)< 0.010.03 (1.460) (1.027–2.078)
 HVI< 0.010.02 (1.889) (1.066–3.346)< 0.01< 0.01 (1.980) (1.284–3.053)
 Fibrosis0.42 0.60 
Surgical factors    
 FRLR ≥ 50%0.63 0.83 
 Non-anatomical resection0.20 0.06 
 Blood loss ≥ 400 ml0.020.97 (1.005) (0.674–1.500)0.040.91 (1.014) (0.772–1.333)
  1. PA prothrombin activity, ChE cholinesterase, ICGR15 indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, PIVKA-II protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, PVI portal venous invasion, HVI hepatic venous invasion, FRLR future remnant liver rates