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Table 1 US features of thyroid nodules based on pathological subtypes

From: A computer-aided diagnosing system in the evaluation of thyroid nodules—experience in a specialized thyroid center

US features Pathological subtypesP value
 PTC *$FTC*#FTA*#GoiterCystThyroiditis 
Size (Mean ± SD, mm)P = 0.001*   P = 0.003# 0.003
 9.41 ± 6.9815.56 ± 4.7614.61 ± 8.869.68 ± 6.6511.03 ± 6.465.30 ± 2.49 
Composition      0.280
 Solid90 (98.9%)4 (100.0%)24 (96.0%)45 (97.8%)0 (0.0%)4 (100.0%) 
 Mainly solid1 (1.1%)0 (0.0%)1 (4.0%)1 (2.2%)4 (40.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Mainly cyst0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)5 (50.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Spongiform0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)1 (10.0%)0 (0.0%) 
Echogenicity    P = 0.018$ 0.038
 Hyper2 (2.2%)0 (0.0%)2 (8.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Iso5 (5.5%)0 (0.0%)7 (28.0%)9 (19.6%)0 (0.0%)1 (25.0%) 
 Hypo60 (65.9%)3 (75.0%)12 (48.0%)31 (67.4%)0 (0.0%)3 (75.0%) 
 Markedly4 (4.4%)1 (25.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Anechoic0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)10 (100.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Heterogenous20 (22.0%)0 (0.0%)4 (16.0%)6 (13.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%) 
MarginP = 0.000*   P = 0.002$ 0.168
 Well-defined5 (5.5%)0 (0.0%)13 (52.0%)37 (80.4%)10 (100.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Lobulated26 (28.6%)0 (0.0%)3 (12.0%)2 (4.4%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Ill-defined60 (65.9%)4 (100.0%)9 (36.0%)7 (15.2%)0 (0.0%)4 (100.0%) 
Calcification      0.277
 Micro52 (57.1%)0 (0.0%)8 (32.0%)17 (37.0%)6 (60.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Macro7 (7.7%)2 (50.0%)0 (0.0%)7 (15.2%)0 (0.0%)1 (25.0%) 
 Eggshell2 (2.2%)0 (0.0%)1 (4.0%)3 (6.5%)1 (10.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Mixed4 (4.4%)0 (0.0%)3 (12.0%)2 (4.3%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 None26 (28.6%)2 (50.0%)13 (52.0%)17 (37.0%)3 (30.0%)3 (75.0%) 
OrientationP = 0.002*   P = 0.000$ 0.004
 Parallel50 (54.9%)4 (100.0%)21 (84.0%)39 (84.8%)7 (70.0%)4 (100.0%) 
 Nonparallel41 (45.1%)0 (0.0%)4 (16.0%)7 (15.2%)3 (30.0%)0 (0.0%) 
ShapeP = 0.000*   P = 0.001$ 0.044
 Ovoid to round12 (13.2%)0 (0.0%)15 (60.0%)16 (34.8%)10 (100.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Irregular79 (86.8%)4 (100.0%)10 (40.0%)30 (65.2%)0 (0.0%)4 (100.0%) 
Blood flowP = 0.007*     0.852
 Without0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)9 (90.0%)0 (0.0%) 
 Low76 (83.5%)2 (50.0%)14 (56.0%)32 (71.1%)1 (10.0%)3 (75.0%) 
 Medium10 (11.0%)1 (25.0%)7 (28.0%)7 (15.6%)0 (0.0%)1 (25.0%) 
 High5 (5.5%)1 (25.0%)4 (16.0%)6 (13.3%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%) 
  1. PTC papillary thyroid carcinoma, FTC follicullar thyroid carcinoma, FTA follicullar thyroid adenoma, US ultrasound
  2. *PTC vs FTC + FTA
  3. $PTC vs goiter, cyst, and thyroiditis
  4. #FTC + FTA vs goiter, cyst, and thyroiditis