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Table 4 Univariate analysis to determine the factors associated with recurrence

From: Factors predicting recurrence after curative resection for rectal cancer: a 16-year study

Prognostic factors Risk category Reference category Univariate analysis
HR 95% CI p
Factors related to the population
 Sex Female Male 1.651 0.9–2.8 0.07
 Age < 50 years ≥ 50 years 1.136 0.6–2.0 0.66
Factors related to the tumor
 Location Low rectum Upper or middle 1.129 0.7–2.2 0.35
 Fixity Mobile Fixed 1.084 0.5–2.0 0.80
 Stenotic character Stenotic Non-stenotic 2.203 1.1–4.2 0.01
 Size ≥ 5 cm < 5 cm 1.496 0.8–2.6 0.15
Biologic factors
 CEA levels Abnormal Normal 0.721 0.3–1.3 0.32
 LDH levels > 400 Present Absent 0.673 0.1–3.7 0.65
Factors related to adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment
 Neoadjuvant radiotherapy Absent Present 1.337 0.7–2.3 0.31
 Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy Absent Present 1.551 0.8–2.9 0.17
 Adjuvant chemotherapy Absent Present 1.308 0.7–2.3 0.37
Factors related to surgery
 Urgency of the intervention Yes No 7.027 0.9–52.6 0.05
 Experience of the surgeon Junior Senior 0.888 0.3–1.9 0.77
 Surgical approach Laparoscopic Laparotomy 0.962 0.3–2.7 0.94
 Surgical intervention Abdominoperineal resection Anterior resection of the rectum 0.648 0.3–1.2 0.18
 Vascular ligation 1 cm from the origin At the origin 1.334 0.7–2.3 0.33
 Distal margin ≤ 2 cm > 2 cm 2.792 1.5–4.9 0.00
 Intraoperative incident Yes No 3.716 1.6–8.4 0.00
 Anastomotic fistula Present Absent 0.637 0.2–1.4 0.63
Pathological factors
 Parietal invasion (pT stage) T3–T4 T1–T2 2.278 1.1–4.5 0.02
 Invasion of neighboring organs Yes No 3.040 1.5–6.0 0.00
 Tumor perforation Yes No 4.128 1.6–10.5 0.00
 Ganglionic invasion (pN stage) Yes No 2.677 1.5–4.6 0.00
 Extra capsular invasion Yes No 2.789 1.1–6.6 0.02
 Vascular emboli Yes No 3.817 2.1–6.6 0.00
 lymphatic and perineural invasion Yes No 4.235 2.2–7.8 0.00
 Mucoid colloid component Yes No 1.360 0.7–2.6 0.34
 pTNM stage III and IV I and II 2.833 1.6–4.8 0.00
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval