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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients with and without recurrence

From: Factors predicting recurrence after curative resection for rectal cancer: a 16-year study

  Without recurrence, n = 135 Recurrence, n = 53 Total, N = 188
N % N % N %
Demographic characteristics
 Sex
  Male 84 62.2 24 45.3 108 57.4
  Female 51 37.8 29 54.7 80 42.6
 Age
  < 50 years 23 17.0 18 34.0 41 21.8
  ≤ 50 years 112 83.0 35 66.0 147 78.2
Clinical characteristics
 Location of the tumor
  Upper rectum 36 26.7 9 17.0 45 23.9
  Middle rectum 49 36.3 16 30.2 65 34.6
  Low rectum 50 37.0 28 50.9 77 41.0
 Size of the tumor
  < 5 cm 92 68.1 24 45.2 116 61.7
  > 5 cm 43 31.1 29 54.8 72 38,3
 Stenotic character
  Yes 21 15 13 24.6 34 18
  No 114 85 40 75.4 154 82
 CEA levels
  Normal 26 19.2 24 45.2 50 27
  Abnormal 109 80.8 29 54.8 138 73
 Neoadjuvant therapy
  Yes 85 62.9 35 66 120 63.8
  No 50 37.1 18 34 68 36.2
 Surgical intervention
  Abdominoperineal resection 22 15.6 13 24.5 35 18.1
  Anterior resection of the rectum 108 70.4 36 67.9 144 77.1
  Local excision 5 4.4 4 7.5 9 4.8
 Distal margin
  ≤ 2 cm 37 27.4 31 58.4 68 37
  > 2 cm 90 72.6 22 41.6 112 63
 Intraoperative incident
  Yes 32 23.7 17 32 49 26
  No 103 76.3 36 68 139 64
 pT stage
  T1–T2 54 40 10 18.8 64 34
  T3–T4 81 60 43 81.2 124 66
 Invasion of neighboring organs
  Yes 6 4 10 18.8 16 8.5
  No 129 96 43 81.2 172 11.5
 Tumor perforation
  Yes 2 1.5 5 9.4 7 3.7
  No 133 98.5 48 90.6 181 96.3
 pN stage
  N0 106 78.5 21 39.6 127 67.5
  N+ 29 21.5 32 60.4 61 32.5
 Extra capsular invasion
  Yes 8 6 31 58.4 39 20.7
  No 127 64 22 41.6 149 79.3
 Vascular emboli
  Yes 10 7.4 20 37.7 30 16
  No 125 92.6 33 62.3 158 84
 Lymphatic and perineural invasion
  Yes 7 5.2 14 26.4 21 11.1
  No 128 94.8 39 73.6 167 88.9
 pTNM stage
  I and II 102 75.5 22 41.5 124 66
  III and IV 33 84.5 31 58.5 64 34