Skip to main content

Table 2 Causes for early radical surgery following local excision of rectal cancer and residual cancer in resected specimen of 12 patients

From: Local excision followed by early radical surgery in rectal cancer: long-term outcome

Cause of early radical surgery Residual tumor in rectal wall Lymph node metastases
n 46 6*/46 (13%) 9*/46 (20%)
Positive resection
 Margin** 11 (24%) 0 0
 High-risk carcinoma 14 (30%) 0 3 (21%)
Positive resection
 Margin and high-risk carcinoma** 21 (46%) 6* (29%) 6* (29%)
   p = 0.02 p = 0.055
  1. *3 patients had residual tumor in rectal wall and involved nodes
  2. **Incomplete resection (R1) or indeterminate or unsafe resection margin (minimal distance ≤ 1 mm)