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Table 1 Clinicopathological characteristics of trials included

From: A systematic review of the comparison of the incidence of seeding metastasis between endoscopic biliary drainage and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for resectable malignant biliary obstruction

Study Country Study year Design of studies Follow-up(months) Tumor type PTBD EBD Outcome indicators
No. TBIL (mg/dl) Histologic grade Tumor location No. TBIL (mg/dl) Histologic grade Tumor location
Poorly differentiated Poorly differentiated  
Kawakami et al. [10] Japan 1999–2009 RCS 60 PHC 48 12.0 I 4 II 12 IIIa 8 IIIb 8 IV 16 80 9.6 I 15 II 22 IIIa 16 IIIb 11 IV 16 ,
Hwang et al. [19] Korea 1985–2002 RCS 120 PHC 171 62 ,
Murakami et al. [11] Japan 1998–2013 RCS 60 PC 20 14 73 47 , ,
Hirano et al. [12] Japan 2000–2008 RCS 160 PHC 67 8.4 I 5 II 16 IIIa 13 IIIb 13 IV 20 74 5.2 I 15 II 21 IIIa 12 IIIb 16 IV 10 , ,
Komaya et al. [13] Japan 2001–2010 RCS 60 DCC 189 7.4 117 Middle 53 Low 136 187 4.7 123 Middle 61 Low 126 , ,
Uemura et al. [14] Japan 2001–2012 RCS 120 PC 166 163 407 392 , , ,
Wiggers et al. [18] Netherland/USA 1991–2012 RCS 60 PC 88 11.2 I 8 II 11 IIIa 30 IIIb 18 IV:19 157 3.2 I 41 II 23 IIIa 44 IIIb 28 IV 16 ,
Komaya et al. [15] Japan 2003–2012 RCS 60 PHC 168 123 I/II/III 77 IV 91 152 113 I/II/III 92 IV 60 , ,
Higuchi et al. [16] Japan 2000–2013 RCS 12~60 PHC 87 58 I/II/III 50 IV 37 76 52 I/II/III 44 IV 32 ,
Miura et al. [17] Japan 1987–2015 RCS 60 DCC 25 3.7 12 63 2.4 32 ,
  1. Bismuth’s classification: subtypes I, II, III, and IV; outcome indicators: PTBD catheter tract recurrence, pleural dissemination on the right side alone, peritoneal dissemination, and intrahepatic metastasis (only for PC)
  2. TBIL total bilirubin, BC Bismuth classification, PHC perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, DCC distal cholangiocarcinoma, PC pancreatic head carcinoma, RCS retrospective cohort studies, NOS Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, “–” not mentioned