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Table 5 Postoperative complications based on the length of the smoking cessation period before surgery

From: The effect of preoperative smoking cessation and smoking dose on postoperative complications following radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a retrospective study of 2469 patients

Variables Non-smokers (n = 1413) Smokers (n = 1056) P value
≤ 2 weeks (n = 823) 2 to 4 weeks (n = 40) ≥ 4 weeks (n = 193)
Complicationsa 143 (10.1%) 115 (14.0%) 6 (15.0%) 29 (15.0%) 0.020
 Surgical site infection 59 (4.2%) 43 (5.2%) 0 14 (7.3%) 0.104
 Pulmonary complication 46 (3.3%) 44 (5.3%) 4 (10.0%) 6 (3.1%) 0.019
 Bleeding 12 (0.8%) 8 (1.0%) 0 4 (2.1%) 0.385
 Others 26 (1.8%) 20 (2.4%) 2 (5.0%) 5 (2.6%) 0.444
 Severity of complicationsb      0.040
  Minor (grade II) 104 (7.4%) 80 (9.7%) 5 (12.5%) 17 (8.8%)  
  Major (grade III or greater) 39 (2.8%) 35 (4.3%) 1 (2.5%) 12 (6.2%)  
  1. aData are number of complications (%), patients may have more than one complications
  2. bBased on the Clavien-Dindo severity classification of surgical complications