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Table 5 Summary of localization procedures

From: Localization of nonpalpable pulmonary nodules using CT-guided needle puncture

Method Advantage Disadvantage Ref.
CT-guided hookwire Safe, fast Chest wall pain, pneumothorax [7, 1315]
Low complication rate Dislodgement
CT-guided coil Same as above Lung parenchyma damage [8]
Coil migration
CT-guided barium spray Same as above Inflammatory reaction of tissue [911]
Intraoperative ultrasound Quick Difficult for emphysematous lung [12, 18, 19]
More affordable For lesion more than 1 cm
Less invasive Operator dependent
Methylene blue Simple Diffuse into surrounding lung [19, 20]
Inexpensive
Fluoroscopic-aided contrast medium Adequate margins of resections on fluoroscopic imaging Contrast allergy [2123]
Radiation exposure
Pneumothorax
Radio-guided thoracoscopic surgery Real-time verifying stapled margin Gamma ray detector [24]
Diffusion or pleural spillage
Short half-life
Bronchoscopic metallic coil marking Avoid pneumothorax, secondary hematoma, and the intravascular injection of substances originating in needling Ultrathin bronchoscope [25]
C-arm use
Metallic allergy
Coil migration, cost
CT-guided puncture No dye, radiotracer, or contrast medium Cooperation with radiologist This study
No migration Technique dependent
  1. Ref reference