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Table 1 Epidemiologic studies on phytoestrogen intake in association with prostate cancer risk

From: Phytoestrogens and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

Reference Study site/race Design Cases/controls or cohort size Dietary assessment Phytoestrogens Contrast Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjustment
Park et al. [27] 2008 USA/multiethnic Cohort 4404/82,483 QFFQ (118 items) Genistein <0.7 vs. ≥3.1 mg/1000 kcal 0.94 (0.84–1.04) Time since cohort entry, ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer, education level, BMI, smoking status, and energy intake
Daidzein <0.7 vs. ≥3.2 mg/1000 kcal 0.92 (0.82–1.02)
Total isoflavones <1.6 vs. ≥7.2 mg/1000 kcal 0.93 (0.83–1.04)
Kurahashi et al. [28] 2007 Japan/Japanese Cohort 307/43,509 FFQ (147 items) Genistein <13.2 vs. ≥32.8 mg/day 0.71 (0.48–1.03) Age, area, smoking status, drinking frequency, marital status, BMI, intake of total fatty acids, dairy, vegetables, and fruits
Daidzein <8.5 vs. ≥20.4 mg/day 0.77 (0.52–1.13)
Nagata et al. [31] 2007 Japan/Japanese HCC 200/200 Semi-quantitative FFQ Isoflavones <30.5 vs. ≥89.9 mg/day 0.48 (0.25–0.93) Smoking, energy, and PUFA intake
Genistein <1.1 mg/day vs. ≥ 2.5 mg/day 0.68 (0.39–1.20)
Daidzein <0.8 mg/day vs. ≥1.9 mg/day 0.64 (0.36–1.17)
Heald et al. [32] 2007 Scotland/Scottish PCC 433/483 SCG-FFQ Isoflavones ≤581.1 μg/day vs. ≥1982.8 μg/day 1.18 (0.79–1.75) Age, total energy intake, family history of PCa and BrCa, Carstairs Deprivation Index, smoking and energy intake: BMR ratio
Bosetti et al. [29] 2006 Italy/Italian, HCC 1294/1451 FFQ Isoflavones ≤14.7 vs. ≥32.2 μg/day 0.98 (0.76–1.26) Terms for age, study center, education, body mass index, family history of prostate cancer, and total calorie intake
Hedelin et al. [25] 2006 Sweden/Swedish PCC 1499/1130 FFQ (261 items) Phytoestrogens ≤1.18 vs. >4.71 μg/day 0.74 (0.57–0.95) Age, intake of antibiotics, zinc, animal fat, total energy intake, alcohol, vegetable fat, red meat during the last year
Lignans ≤113 vs. >213 μg/day 0.85 (0.65–1.12)
Isoflavonoids ≤1.0 vs. >2.6 μg/day 0.99 (0.77–1.28)
Genistein ≤0.27 vs. >1.08 μg/d 0.97 (0.75–1.26)
Daidzein ≤0.49 vs. >1.11 μg/d 1.22 (0.92–1.62)
Lee et al. [30] 2003 China/Chinese HCC 133/265 FFQ Genistein <17.9 vs. >62.0 mg/day 0.53 (0.29–0.97) Age and total calories
Daidzein <10.0 vs. >36.3 mg/day 0.56 (0.31–1.04)
Strom et al. [34] 1999 USA/American white HCC 83/107 FFQ (modified block) Genistein Low vs. high 0.71 (0.39–1.30) Age, family history of prostate cancer, alcohol intake, and total caloric intake
Daidzein   0.57 (0.31–1.05)
McCann et al. [33] 2005 USA/American PCC 433/538 FFQ (172 items) Lignans <335.4 vs. >603.9 μg/day 0.66 (0.47–0.94) Age, education, body mass index, cigarette smoking status, and total energy
Word et al. [26] 2010 UK/British Caucasians Nested C-C 203/800 FFQ and 7-day food diaries Daidzein Low vs. high 0.88 (0.72–1.09) Age, height, weight, physical activity, social class, family history of prostate cancer, and daily intake of energy, fat, zinc, selenium, dairy products, and lycopene
Genistein   0.89 (0.72–1.09)
Total isoflavones   0.87 (0.70–1.09)
Total lignans   0.96 (0.71–1.31)
Lewis et al. [35] 2009 USA/American HCC 478/382 Block FFQ (100 items) Genistein ≤196.0 vs. >196.0 mcg 0.54 (0.33–0.89) Age, education, BMI, smoking history, family history of prostate cancer in first-degree relatives, and total caloric intake
Daidzein ≤77.0 vs. >77.0 mcg 0.54 (0.33–0.89)
  1. QFFQ quantitative food frequency questionnaire, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acid, SCG-FFQ Scottish Collaborative Group-FFQ, EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, HCC hospital-based case–control, PCC population-based case–control, BMI body mass index, PCa prostate cancer