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Table 2 Operative data and postoperative complications

From: Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery compared with open resection for mid and low rectal cancer: a case-matched study with long-term follow-up

  Open HALS P value
(n = 116) (n = 116)
Surgical procedure    0.502
Dixon 90 (77.6) 85 (73.2)  
Hartmann 12 (10.3) 18 (15.5)  
APE 14(12.1) 13 (11.2)  
Anastomosisb    0.758
  Stapled 82 (90.2) 80 (94.1)  
  Handsewn 8 (9.8) 5 (5.9)  
Loop ileostomyb 47 (52.2) 49 (57.6) 0.471
Morbidity of loop ileostomy closure 10 (21.3) 9 (18.4) 0.721
Incision length (cm) 16 ± 2 6 ± 1 <0.001
Operative time (minutes) 126 ± 21 160 ± 36 <0.001
Blood loss (ml) 392 ± 95 262 ± 136 <0.001
Duration of narcotic analgesia(days) 3.2 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.1 <0.001
Return to oral diet (days) 4.3 ± 1.6 2.9 ± 1.5 <0.001
Length of postoperative stay (days) 8.5 ± 2.5 6.5 ± 2.0 <0.001
Complications 36 (31.0) 31(26.7) 0.469
  Anastomotic leakageb 8 (8.9) 7 (8.2) 0.877
  Anastomotic bleedingb 5 (5.6) 3 (3.5) 0.721a
  Rectovaginal fistulab 2 (2.2) 2 (2.4) 1.000a
  Wound infectionc 15 (12.9) 4 (3.4) 0 · 015a
  Chest infectionc 7 (6.0) 3 (2.6) 0 · 333a
  Urinary fistulac 0 (0) 2 (1.7) 0.498a
  Urinary retentionc 9 (7.8) 6 (5.2) 0.423
  Intestinal obstructionc 6 (5.2) 11 (9.5) 0.208
  Incision herniac 4 (3.4) 1 (0.9) 0 · 370a
  Parastomal herniac 2 (1.7) 2 (1.7) 1.000a
  Postoperative deathc 1 (0.9) 1 (0.9) 1.000a
Conversion to open surgery   1  
  1. APE Abdominoperineal excision
  2. aFisher Exact test
  3. bCalculated from the operation of Dixon
  4. cCalculated from the curative surgery