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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery compared with open resection for mid and low rectal cancer: a case-matched study with long-term follow-up

  Open HALS P value
(n = 116) (n = 116)
Sex ratio (M/F) 71/45 68/48 0.688a
Age (years) 64 ± 11 61 ± 16 0.310a
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.1 ± 5.0 23.3 ± 3.1 0.315a
ASA grade    0.652
  I 42 (36.2) 39 (33.6)  
  II 36 (31.0) 45 (38.8)  
  III 33 (28.5) 28 (24.1)  
  IV 5 (4.3) 4 (3.5)  
Tumor distance from AV (cm)    0.311a
  0–5 cm 37 (31.9) 30 (25.9)  
  5.1–12 cm 79 (68.1) 86 (74.1)  
Preoperative staging    0.861a
  I 32 (24.1) 30 (25.9)  
  II 41 (31.9) 45 (38.8)  
  III 43 (33.6) 41 (35.3)  
Neoadjuvant CRT 33(28.4) 28 (24.1) 0.456
  1. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, AV Anal verge, CRT chemoradiotherapy
  2. aMatched parameters