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Table 3 Intraoperative frozen biopsy and type of surgery

From: Unexpected esophageal diseases appeared in thyroid resections

Cases Display of surgery Intraoperative frozen biopsies Type of surgery
1 Neoplasm adhered to thyroid to form a firm mass which also enclosed the internal jugular vein. Poorly differentiated squamous carcinoma Anterior cervical neoplasm biopsya
2 Neoplasm attached to thyroid and invaded the right recurrent laryngeal nerve. (Figure 3) Highly differentiated squamous carcinoma (Figure 4) Anterior cervical neoplasm biopsya
3 Neoplasm was cystic with integrated envelope and its central cavity communicated with esophagus. Zenker’s diverticulumb Excision and repair
4 Neoplasm protruded from esophagus with food remains in it. Zenker’s diverticulumc Excision and repair
5 Neoplasm can be touched from esophageal outer membrane and the texture was soft. Zenker’s diverticulumd (Figure 5) Excision and repair
6 Neoplasm was pouch-like and communicated with esophageal pyriform sinus. Zenker’s diverticulume Excision and repair
7 Neoplasm compressed the left laryngeal recurrent nerve. Zenker’s diverticulumf Excision and repair
  1. aBased on the consultations of thoracic surgeons and histopathological examinations, we performed the surgery and took a little of tissue sample for biopsy in order to avoid the esophageal fistula and unnecessary damage. Therefore, the majority of neoplasm is remaining and the size is similar with previous. bSquamous epithelium has hyperplasia with erosion and chronic inflammatory cells invade the lamina propria. Hemangiectasis is obvious. cSquamous epithelial mucosa is chronically inflammatory and the base layer cracks have no cell and other ingredients in it. dThe lining of cystic tissue wall is squamous epithelium with some small glands in lamina propria. eMucosal surface concave into cavity with squamous epithelium as lining. fSquamous epithelial has significant hyperplasia.