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Table 2 EORTC QLQ-C30v3 scores by time and gender ( N= 75)

From: A longitudinal study of gender differences in quality of life among Japanese patients with lower rectal cancer treated with sphincter-saving surgery: a 1-year follow-up

Questionnaire time points
  Reference data General German population Men ( n= 42) Reference data General German population Women ( n= 33)       
Before Postoperative time (month) Before Postoperative time (month) Main effect of time η 2 p Main effect of gender η 2 p Time-by-gender interaction η 2 p
(T0) 1 (T1) 6 (T2) 12 (T3) (T0) 1 (T1) 6 (T2) 12 (T3) (T0, T1, T2, T3)      
Men      Women           
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean P values   P values   P values  
  SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD SD       
EORTC QLQ-C30v3
Global health status/QOL 72.7 61.5 53.8 64.5 64.7 69.2 57.8 56.1 68.2 70.7 <0.001 0.099 0.566 0.005 0.411 0.013
  22.2 21.1 25.2 24.2 20.2 21.9 23.5 25.5 20.0 21.8 T1 < T2** T1 < T3***      
Functional scales                 
Physical functioning 92.0 92.2 82.9 90.6 90.3 88.7 87.9 81.6 89.1 90.5 <0.001 0.122 0.447 0.008 0.584 0.008
  15.6 14.4 16.8 11.0 12.0 15.9 26.2 14.4 9.8 10.9 T0 > T1**      
            T1 < T2** T1 < T3***      
Role functioning 89.8 84.5 63.5 75.4 76.6 86.6 77.8 57.6 79.8 84.3 <0.001 0.209 0.997 0.000 0.060 0.036
  21.7 20.6 30.4 27.4 23.3 23.7 27.2 30.1 19.0 19.1 T0 > T1***      
            T1 < T2*** T1 < T3***      
Emotional functioning 81.8 78.3 74.8 79.9 80.5 76.3 76.5 79.6 85.4 80.3 0.170 0.024 0.559 0.005 0.456 0.011
  18.8 20.6 25.3 19.9 18.8 22.2 18.3 24.6 14.1 23.7       
Cognitive functioning 92.7 83.7 78.0 79.4 78.2 90.1 81.3 83.8 82.8 85.4 0.845 0.003 0.339 0.013 0.130 0.026
  15.0 17.8 23.0 18.3 20.3 18.4 19.9 18.4 18.8 17.1       
Social functioning 92.0 77.8 65.3 73.4 73.4 90.3 77.3 68.7 82.3 85.9 <0.001 0.094 0.187 0.024 0.141 0.025
  18.3 27.2 29.9 24.7 23.9 20.1 25.3 25.2 20.4 20.0 T0 > T1*   At 12 months after surgery: men < women P = 0.030   
            T1 < T2** T1 < T3**    
Symptom scales/items (#)                 
Fatigue 14.0 23.3 35.6 22.8 23.8 19.5 28.3 35.7 29.0 25.9 <0.001 0.090 0.290 0.015 0.632 0.007
  0.3 18.3 23.5 16.3 17.6 23.1 21.7 20.7 16.9 20.5 T0 < T1*      
            T1 > T2** T1 > T3*      
Nausea and vomiting 1.8 0.8 3.6 1.2 1.6 3.6 3.0 6.6 3.5 3.0 0.063 0.038 0.163 0.026 0.860 0.002
  7.6 3.6 10.8 4.3 6.2 11.4 8.8 18.1 10.0 7.7       
Pain 13.0 14.7 26.2 16.3 17.1 17.2 20.2 18.7 16.2 11.6 0.064 0.035 0.649 0.003 0.148 0.025
  23.1 21.5 29.9 24.0 25.4 25.3 23.5 20.7 23.4 18.4       
Dyspnea 6.9 12.2 8.1 8.1 7.3 9.1 9.1 7.1 6.1 10.1 0.455 0.012 0.784 0.001 0.616 0.080
  18.5 24.5 16.3 20.8 15.8 21.6 17.2 20.0 13.1 15.6       
Insomnia 13.0 23.0 31.8 22.2 26.2 19.1 27.3 31.3 28.3 25.3 0.301 0.016 0.681 0.002 0.741 0.005
  24.4 29.9 31.2 32.7 35.0 29.0 29.4 35.3 30.2 23.6       
Appetite loss 4.2 6.4 10.3 7.2 3.2 6.3 17.2 29.3 16.2 12.1 0.005 0.064 0.002 0.130 0.346 0.015
  14.0 13.3 26.6 18.8 9.9 17.4 27.8 35.1 27.8 20.1 T1 > T3**   Men < Women
Constipation 2.5 28.6 28.4 23.0 23.0 4.3 35.4 26.3 33.3 28.3 0.467 0.011 0.296 0.015 0.485 0.011
  11.8 32.6 30.9 29.9 32.5 14.9 36.3 27.3 25.0 22.3       
Diarrhea 2.5 23.0 23.4 22.2 23.0 3.1 23.2 24.2 20.2 14.1 0.402 0.013 0.504 0.006 0.448 0.012
  10.4 25.0 26.3 21.7 22.7 12.6 22.8 25.4 26.3 18.7       
Financial difficulties 5.5 17.5 28.8 19.8 22.2 6.3 13.1 24.2 15.2 16.2 0.007 0.057 0.336 0.013 0.989 <0.001
  17.8 29.7 26.4 25.6 30.1 18.6 24.9 33.6 23.7 26.5 T0 < T1* T1 > T2**  
  1. Higher scores on functional scales and overall QOL scale indicate higher levels of function. Higher scores on symptoms scales or single items (#) indicate higher levels of symptoms or problems.
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.