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Table 3 Pooled risk estimates for the associations between carotenoids intake or blood carotenoids levels and bladder cancer risk

From: Vitamin A and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

Specific carotenoids Number of studies Pooled relative risk (95% CI) Q-test for heterogeneity P value (I2score)
Carotenoids intake
Total carotenoids 4 0.67 (0.55, 0.79) 0.524 (0)
α-carotene 8 0.87 (0.76, 0.99) 0.221 (27.2%)
β-carotene 12 0.89 (0.82, 0.97) 0.084 (38.6%)
β-cryptoxanthin 6 0.86 (0.73, 1.00) 0.427(0)
Lutein/zeaxanthin 6 0.93 (0.70, 1.17) 0.035 (58.2%)
Lycopene 6 0.95 (0.82, 1.07) 0.54 (0)
Blood carotenoids level
Total carotenoids 2 0.43 (0.20, 0.93) 0.241 (27.3%)
α-carotene 4 0.56 (0.37, 0.75) 0.106 (51.0%)
β-carotene 4 0.41 (0.05, 0.78) 0.013 (72.4%)
β-cryptoxanthin 4 0.62 (0.06, 1.19) 0.027 (67.4%)
Lutein/zeaxanthin 4 0.50 (0.12, 0.87) 0.056 (50.2%)
Lycopene 4 0.60 (0.17, 1.03) 0.053 (61.0%)