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Table 1 The potential mechanisms of diabetes in PanCa

From: The bidirectional interation between pancreatic cancer and diabetes

Parameters Role in PanCa Refs
Pancreatic duct Enlargement Mechanical obstruction [24]
  Replication increased Predisposing factor [25]
Hyperinsulinism and insulin resistance Post-insulin receptor defect Impaired glycogen synthesis and storage [27]
  Plasma glucagon levels and IAPP Early development of PanCa [28]
  Polymorphism of -23HphI (A/T) Pathogenesis of PanCa [29]
Tumor size Increased Decreased postresection survival [31]
   Enhanced growth [32]
Genetic variants HK2 R844K GA/AA genotype Increased risk [33]
  K-ras codon 12 mutations Increased risk [34]
  1. IAPP, islet amyloid polypeptide; PanCa, pancreatic cancer.