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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of patients with or without PAL in training cohort and validation cohort

From: Construction and validation of a nomogram for predicting prolonged air leak after minimally invasive pulmonary resection

Characteristics Training cohort Validation cohort
Non-PAL
(n = 1401)
PAL
(n = 259)
P Non-PAL
(n = 471)
PAL
(n = 82)
P
Age (years), median (IQR) 58.0 (51.0–65.0) 62.0 (54.0–69.0) <0.001 57.0 (51.0–65.0) 63.0 (55.5–69.0) 0.002
Gender, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Female 842 (60.1) 123 (47.5)   284 (60.3) 25 (30.5)  
 Male 559 (39.9) 136 (52.5)   187 (39.7) 57 (69.5)  
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR) 24.9 (22.9–27.1) 24.0 (22.1–26.0) <0.001 25.3 (23.0–27.3) 24.1 (22.3–26.6) 0.052
Smoking history, n (%)    <0.001    0.009
 Non-smoker 1074 (76.7) 154 (59.5)   348 (73.9) 49 (59.8)  
 Smoker 327 (23.3) 105 (40.5)   123 (26.1) 33 (40.2)  
Hypertension, n (%)    0.299    0.872
 No 1023 (73.0) 181 (69.9)   329 (69.9) 58 (70.7)  
 Yes 378 (27.0) 78 (30.1)   142 (30.1) 24 (29.3)  
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)    0.983    0.760
 No 1211 (86.4) 224 (86.5)   419 (89.0) 72 (87.8)  
 Yes 190 (13.6) 35 (13.5)   52 (11.0) 10 (12.2)  
COPD, n (%)    0.028    0.219
 No 1391 (99.3) 253 (97.7)   467 (99.2) 80 (97.6)  
 Yes 10 (0.7) 6 (2.3)   4 (0.8) 2 (2.4)  
Neoadjuvant therapy, n (%)    0.066    0.383
 No 1381 (98.6) 251 (96.9)   460 (97.7) 82 (100.0)  
 Yes 20 (1.4) 8 (3.1)   11 (2.3) 0  
History of thoracic surgery, n (%)    0.560    0.107
 No 1381 (98.6) 257 (99.2)   469 (99.6) 80 (97.6)  
 Yes 20 (1.4) 2 (0.8)   2 (0.4) 2 (2.4)  
FEV1 % predicted (%), median (IQR) 105.3 (93.9–116.0) 100.5 (87.1–113.2) <0.001 105.3 (95.4–115.8) 99.2 (86.9–111.4) <0.001
MVV % predicted (%), median (IQR) 103.2 (91.1–116.0) 98.2 (85.1–112.1) <0.001 104.9 (92.5–117.1) 95.2 (85.7–107.3) <0.001
Blood type, n (%)    0.188    0.199
 A 396 (28.3) 83 (32.0)   140 (29.7) 18 (22.0)  
 B 490 (35.0) 88 (34.0)   151 (32.1) 34 (41.5)  
 AB 148 (10.6) 17 (6.6)   53 (11.3) 12 (14.6)  
 O 367 (26.2) 71 (27.4)   127 (27.0) 18 (22.0)  
Lymphocyte (×109/L), median (IQR) 1.79 (1.46–2.20) 1.73 (1.41–2.13) 0.075 1.78 (1.49–2.16) 1.68 (1.43–2.20) 0.306
Albumin (g/L), median (IQR) 59.8 (57.6–61.9) 59.9 (57.6–62.2) 0.395 59.7 (57.4–61.9) 60.1 (57.7–62.1) 0.765
PNI (%), median (IQR) 69.0 (66.1–71.6) 68.8 (65.8–72.0) 0.992 69.0 (66.0–72.0) 68.8 (65.0–72.1) 0.840
ASA score, n (%)    0.005    0.355
 I 143 (10.2) 19 (7.3)   46 (9.8) 4 (4.9)  
 II 1228 (87.7) 226 (87.3)   406 (86.2) 74 (90.2)  
 III 30 (2.1) 14 (5.4)   19 (4.0) 4 (4.9)  
Surgical technique, n (%)    0.316    0.066
 RATS 453 (32.3) 92 (35.5)   176 (37.4) 22 (26.8)  
 VATS 948 (67.7) 167 (64.5)   295 (62.6) 60 (73.2)  
Surgical procedure, n (%)    <0.001    <0.001
 Sublobar resection 712 (50.8) 68 (26.3)   239 (50.7) 22 (26.8)  
 Lobectomy 689 (49.2) 191 (73.7)   232 (49.3) 60 (73.2)  
Surgical range, n (%)    0.001    0.288
 Mono-lobe 1219 (87.0) 205 (79.2)   416 (88.3) 69 (84.1)  
 Multi-lobe 182 (13.0) 54 (20.8)   55 (11.7) 13 (15.9)  
Operation side, n (%)    0.141    0.388
 Left-sided 543 (38.8) 113 (43.6)   183 (38.9) 36 (43.9)  
 Right-sided 858 (61.2) 146 (56.4)   288 (61.1) 46 (56.1)  
Operation duration (min), median (IQR) 90.0 (70.0–115.0) 110 (85.0–140.0) <0.001 90.0 (70.0–110.0) 107.5 (80.0–125.0) <0.001
Number of LNs dissected, median (IQR) 6.0 (4.0–9.0) 8.0 (5.0–12.0) <0.001 6.0 (4.0–9.0) 7.5 (5.0–12.3) 0.001
Tumor size (cm), median (IQR) 1.3 (0.9–2.0) 1.5 (1.2–2.5) <0.001 1.3 (0.9–2.0) 2.0 (1.5–3.0) <0.001
  1. PAL prolonged air leak, IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, MVV maximal voluntary ventilation, PNI prognostic nutritional index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, RATS robotic-assisted thoracic surgery, VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery, LN lymph node