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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics of the training cohort and validation cohort

From: Construction and validation of a nomogram for predicting prolonged air leak after minimally invasive pulmonary resection

Characteristics All cohort
(n = 2213)
Training cohort
(n = 1660)
Validation cohort
(n = 553)
P
Age (years), median (IQR) 58.00 (51.00–66.00) 58.00 (51.00–66.00) 58.00 (52.00–66.00) 0.607
Gender, n (%)     0.353
 Female 1274 (57.6) 965 (58.1) 309 (55.9)  
 Male 939 (42.4) 695 (41.9) 244 (44.1)  
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR) 24.77 (22.77–27.01) 24.71 (22.77–26.95) 25.04 (22.83–27.26) 0.153
Smoking history, n (%)     0.314
 Non-smoker 1625 (73.4) 1228 (74.0) 397 (71.8)  
 Smoker 588 (26.6) 432 (26.0) 156 (28.2)  
Hypertension, n (%)     0.248
 No 1591 (71.9) 1204 (72.5) 387 (70.0)  
 Yes 622 (28.1) 456 (27.5) 166 (30.0)  
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)     0.156
 No 1926 (87.0) 1435 (86.4) 491 (88.8)  
 Yes 287 (13.0) 225 (13.6) 62 (11.2)  
COPD, n (%)     0.804
 No 2191 (99.0) 1644 (99.0) 547 (98.9)  
 Yes 22 (1.0) 16 (1.0) 6 (1.1)  
Neoadjuvant therapy, n (%)     0.640
 No 2174 (98.2) 1632 (98.3) 542 (98.0)  
 Yes 39 (1.8) 28 (1.7) 11 (2.0)  
History of thoracic surgery, n (%)     0.255
 No 2187 (98.8) 1638 (98.7) 549 (99.3)  
 Yes 26 (1.2) 22 (1.3) 4 (0.7)  
FEV1 % predicted (%), median (IQR) 104.46 (93.35–115.58) 104.55 (92.89–115.71) 104.35 (94.63–115.11) 0.674
MVV % predicted (%), median (IQR) 103.15 (90.24–115.63) 102.74 (89.91–115.46) 104.82 (91.18–116.26) 0.201
Blood type, n (%)     0.670
 A 637 (28.8) 479 (28.9) 158 (28.6)  
 B 763 (34.5) 578 (34.8) 185 (33.5)  
 AB 230 (10.4) 165 (9.9) 65 (11.8)  
 O 583 (26.3) 438 (26.4) 145 (26.2)  
Lymphocyte (×109/L), median (IQR) 1.78 (1.46–2.18) 1.79 (1.45–2.18) 1.77 (1.49–2.16) 0.791
Albumin (g/L), median (IQR) 59.70 (57.60–61.90) 59.80 (57.60–61.90) 59.70 (57.50–61.90) 0.635
PNI (%), median (IQR) 68.95 (66.05–71.65) 68.95 (66.05–71.60) 68.90 (65.85–71.98) 0.839
ASA score, n (%)     0.185
 I 212 (9.6) 162 (9.8) 50 (9.0)  
 II 1934 (87.4) 1454 (87.6) 480 (86.8)  
 III 67 (3.0) 44 (2.7) 23 (4.2)  
Surgical technique, n (%)     0.200
 RATS 743 (33.6) 545 (32.8) 198 (35.8)  
 VATS 1470 (66.4) 1115 (67.2) 355 (64.2)  
Surgical procedure, n (%)     0.932
 Sublobar resection 1041 (47.0) 780 (47.0) 261 (47.2)  
 Lobectomy 1172 (53.0) 880 (53.0) 292 (52.8)  
Surgical range, n (%)     0.256
 Mono-lobe 1909 (86.3) 1424 (85.8) 485 (87.7)  
 Multi-lobe 304 (13.7) 236 (14.2) 68 (12.3)  
Operation side, n (%)     0.972
 Left-sided 875 (39.5) 656 (39.5) 219 (39.6)  
 Right-sided 1338 (60.5) 1004 (60.5) 334 (60.4)  
Operation duration (min), median (IQR) 90.00 (70.00–120.00) 90.00 (70.00–120.00) 90.00 (70.00–115.00) 0.181
Number of LNs dissected, median (IQR) 6.00 (4.00–10.00) 6.00 (4.00–10.00) 6.00 (4.00–10.00) 0.941
Tumor size (cm), median (IQR) 1.40 (1.00–2.00) 1.40 (1.00–2.00) 1.50 (1.00–2.00) 0.885
Prolonged air leak     0.662
 No 1872 (84.6) 1401 (84.4) 471 (85.2)  
 Yes 341 (15.4) 259 (15.6) 82 (14.8)  
  1. IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in one second, MVV maximal voluntary ventilation, PNI prognostic nutritional index, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, RATS robotic-assisted thoracic surgery, VATS video-assisted thoracic surgery, LN lymph node
  2. P-value for the comparison between training cohort and validation cohort