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Table 2 Surgical outcomes of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

From: Factors influencing warm ischemia time in robot-assisted partial nephrectomy change depending on the surgeon’s experience

   All cases All cases by HT 1st period 2nd period 3rd period
Median (range)   N = 174 N = 114 N = 38 N = 38 N = 38
Approach (%) Transperitoneal 114 (65.5) 69 (60.5) 31 (81.6) 27 (71.1) 11 (28.9)
  Retroperitoneal 60 (34.5) 45 (39.5) 7 (18.4) 11 (28.9) 27 (71.1)
Operative time (min)   221 (140–399) 223 (140–353) 197.5 (140–353) 231 (153–290) 239.5 (174–328)
Operator   6 1 1 1 1
Console time (min) All cases 143 (42–277) 138.5 (42–277) 140.5 (64–203) 142 (74–200) 136.5 (42–277)
  Transperitoneal 157 (42–262)     
  Retroperitoneal 113 (58–277)     
Estimated blood loss (mL)   42 (0–1805) 60 (0–1805) 63 (0–1805) 50.5 (0–1184) 74.5 (0–736)
Warm ischemia time (min)   17.3 (9.2–56) 17.2 (9.2–56.0) 17.4 (9.3–34.0) 16.9 (10.1–56.0) 17.3 (10.9–29.2)
Intra-operative complication (%) Satava ≥ 2 3 (1.7) 1 (0.9) 1 (2.6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Postoperative complication (%) Clavien-Dindo ≥ 2 27 (15.5) 17 (14.9) 5 (13.2) 6 (15.8) 6 (15.8)
Positive surgical margin (%)   1 (0.6) 1 (0.9) 1 (2.6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
eGFR at 1 month after operation (%) ≥ 90% 121 (69.5) 73 (64.0) 29 (76.3) 28 (73.7) 16 (42.1)
Trifecta accomplishment (%)   151 (86.8) 100 (87.7) 33 (86.8) 32 (84.2) 35 (92.1)
Histology (%) Clear 128 (73.6) 84 (73.7) 27 (71.1) 33 (86.8) 24 (63.2)
  Papillary 22 (12.6) 14 (12.3) 4 (10.5) 3 (7.9) 7 (18.4)
  Chromophobe 9 (5.2) 7 (6.1) 2 (5.3) 2 (5.3) 3 (7.9)
  AML 7 (4.0) 5 (4.4) 3 (7.9) 0 (0) 2 (5.3)
  Oncocytoma 3 (1.7) 3 (2.6) 2 (5.3) 0 (0) 1 (2.6)
  Xp11.2 1 (0.6) 1 (0.9) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (2.6)
  MTSCC 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Pathological T (%) 1a 145 (83.3) 90 (78.9) 31 (81.6) 33 (86.8) 26 (68.4)
  1b 15 (8.6) 14 (12.3) 1 (2.6) 5 (13.2) 8 (21.1)
  3a 2 (1.1) 2 (1.8) 1 (2.6) 0 (0) 1 (2.6)
  1. HT high-volume surgeon in our hospital; eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate; AML angiomyolipoma; MTSCC mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma; T size of the primary tumor and whether it has invaded nearby tissue