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Table 3 Comparison of characteristics between TAE and non-TAE groups

From: Intended preoperative trans-arterial embolization for large hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study

Variable   TAE (n=5) (%) non-TAE (n=46) (%) p value
Patient factors
Age   65 [63–78] 71 [16–85] 0.526
Sex Male 5 (100.0) 37 (80.4) 0.571
Etiology NBNC 3 (60.0) 22 (47.8) 0.999
ICG-R15 (%)   15.4 [7.5–24.8] 13.2 [2.7–75.6] 0.727
Child-Pugh B 0 (0.0) 2 (4.5) 0.999
Tumor factors
AFP (ng/ml)   7.2 [2.2–79.6] 14.8 [0.8–128900] 0.265
AFP-L3 (%)   0.0 [0.0–11.4] 9.9 [0.0–84.0] 0.150
PIVKA-II (mAU/ml)   125.0 [14.0–68901.0] 1056.0 [12.0–96988.0] 0.974
Tumor size (mm)   100 [55–130] 65 [50–140] 0.050
Tumor number Multiple 3 (60.0) 12 (26.1) 0.144
Tumor location Right lobe 5 (100.0) 26 (56.5) 0.143
Perioperative factors
PVE Present 2 (40.0) 7 (15.2) 0.209
IBL (mL)   2017 [828–2087] 717 [122–3330] 0.011
Operation time (min)   690 [629–791] 453 [257–694] 0.001
Blood transfusion Present 4 (80.0) 9 (19.6) 0.012
Residual tumor R1/2 0 (0.0) 5 (10.9) 0.999
Postoperative complications CD ≥2 3 (60.0) 13 (28.3) 0.309
  1. Consequent values are expressed as median and range
  2. TAE trans-arterial embolization, NBNC non-B non-C hepatitis, ICG-R15 indocyanine green retention15, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, AFP-L3 L3 fraction of alfa-fetoprotein, PIVKA-II protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II, PVE portal vein embolization, IBL intraoperative blood loss CD Clavien-Dindo classification