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Table 1 Comparison of clinicopathological factors between L and S groups

From: Intended preoperative trans-arterial embolization for large hepatocellular carcinoma: a retrospective cohort study

Variable   S (<50 mm)
n=360 (%)
L (≥50 mm)
n=51 (%)
p value
Patient factors
Age   71 [35–89] 71 [16–85] 0.964
Sex Male 289 (79.8) 42 (82.4) 0.851
HBV infection Present 54 (15.0) 11 (21.6) 0.223
HCV infection Present 202 (56.1) 13 (25.5) <0.001
ICG-R15 (%)   14.6 [3.2–49.7] 13.3 [2.7–75.6] 0.251
Child-Pugh B 11 (3.1) 2 (4.1) 0.665
Tumor factors
AFP (ng/ml)   6.8 [0.5–13310.0] 11.0 [0.80–128900.0] 0.009
AFP-L3 (%)   0.0 [0.0–99.5] 7.2 [0.0–84.0] 0.001
PIVKA-II (mAU/ml)   24.0 [8.0–17483.0] 1011.0 [12.0–96988.0] <0.001
Tumor number Multiple 109 (30.1) 15 (29.4) 0.999
Vascular invasions Present 68 (18.9) 26 (53.1) <0.001
LN metastasis Present 2 (0.7) 1 (2.0) 0.397
Perioperative factors
Preoperative treatmenta Present 19 (5.2) 14 (27.5) <0.001
IBL (ml)   531 [1–15759] 828 [122–3330] 0.003
Operation time (min)   375 [91–867] 467 [257–791] <0.001
Blood transfusion Present 49 (13.6) 13 (25.5) 0.036
Residual tumor R1/2 12 (3.3) 5 (9.8) 0.047
Postoperative complications CD ≥2 120 (33.3) 16 (31.4) 0.874
  1. Consequent values are expressed as median and range
  2. aPreoperative treatment means TAE and portal vein embolization
  3. HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, ICG-R15 indocyanine green retention15, AFP alpha-fetoprotein, AFP-L3 L3 fraction of alfa-fetoprotein, PIVKA-II protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II, LN lymph node, IBL intraoperative blood loss, CD Clavien-Dindo classification TAE trans-arterial embolization