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Table 1 A summary of the oncolytic viruses and their characteristics

From: Overview of the pre-clinical and clinical studies about the use of CAR-T cell therapy of cancer combined with oncolytic viruses

Features Viruses Engineered viruses in studies Particle size Cell entry mechanism Immunogenicity Advantages Disadvantages
Adenoviruses (dsDNA) 1. ONYX‐015 in head and neck cancer 32 kb Endocytosis Low • Can be controlled geneticall
• Clinical trial encounter
• Great information of viral protein work
• Low pathogenicity
• Replication cannot be easily shut-off
2.DNX‐2401 (delta‐24‐RGD) in ovarian cancer
3. CG0070 in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer
Herpes simplex virus (dsDNA) 1. T‐VEC (talimogene laherparepvec) in melanoma 152 kb Endocytosis; penetration Low • Can be easily manipulated genetically
• Clinical trial experience; drugs exist to shut-off unwanted viral replication
• Side impacts incorporate genuine or possibly lethal disease
• Unknown activity of numerous HSV1 qualities
2. HF10 in pancreatic cancer    
Pox virus (vaccinia virus) (dsDNA) Pexa-Vec(JX-594) in primary hepatocellular carcinoma 130–375 kb Membranepenetration and fusion High • Can be easily manipulated genetically
• Clinical trial experience
• Stable in human serum
• Excellent human safety
• Large capacity for encoding transgenes (50 kb)
• Anti-tumor vascular activity
• Undesired viral replication cannot be easily shut-off
• Unknown action of many genes
• Side effects might include potentially fatal or seriously morbid disease
Poliovirusss ( +) RNA PVS‐RIPO in recurrent glioblastoma 7.5 kb Receptor-mediated endocytosis Moderate • Good knowledge of viral gene functions • Cannot be easily manipulated genetically
• No clinical trial experience
• Viral replication cannot be easily shut-off
• Associated with fatality or serious disease
Measles virusss (–) RNA MV‐NIS in ovarian cancer 16 kb ~  Membrane fusion Low • Extensively studied
• Easily manipulated
• Genomic stability
• No integration into host genome
• Adjustable gene
• Crossing of physiological membranes
• Preexisting immune response due to vaccination
ReovirusesdsRNA RT3D (Reolysin®) in head and neck cancer 22–27 kb Endocytosis Low • Associated with relatively mild diseases
• Good knowledge of viral gene function
• Growth advantage in human cells
• Cannot be easily manipulated genetically
• No clinical trial experience
• Viral replication cannot be easily shut-off