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Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis results of risk factors related to POPF after PD (2016 ISGPS edition)

From: Establishment of risk prediction model of postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy: 2016 edition of definition and grading system of pancreatic fistula: a single center experience with 223 cases

Variable Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Odds ratio 95% CI P value Odds ratio 95% CI P value
Sex (male/female) 1.425 0.609–3.330 0.413    
Age ( 65 years/< 65 years) 1.200 0.532–2.706 0.660    
Body mass index ( 23/< 23) 1.864 0.854–4.068 0.116    
Drinking habit (yes/no) 0.988 0.369–2.642 0.981    
Smoking habit (yes/no) 1.192 0.554–2.566 0.653    
Diabetes mellitus (yes/no) 0.545 0.201–1.479 0.229    
Main pancreatic duct diameter (< 3 mm/≥ 3 mm) 3.126 1.330–7.351 0.007    
Main pancreatic duct index (< 0.21/≥ 0.21) 4.263 1.731–10.500 0.001 4.912 1.931–12.493 0.001
Portal vein invasion* (no/yes) 1.500 1.317–1.708 0.067    
Intra-abdominal thickness** (≥ 69 mm/< 69 mm) 3.284 1.406–7.669 0.005    
Preoperative biliary drainage (no/yes) 2.383 0.856–7.205 0.087    
Pancreatic cancer (no/yes) 0.391 0.137–1.121 0.074    
Pancreatic resection margin thickness ( 15 mm/< 15 mm) 3.134 1.233–7.966 0.014    
Pancreas CT value (< 39 HU/ 39 HU) 3.185 1.515–6.695 0.002 2.503 1.033–6.064 0.042
White blood cell count ( 9.5×109/L/< 9.5×109/L) 1.368 1.227–1.525 0.410    
Albumin (< 40 g/L/ 40 g/L) 1.828 0.792–4.218 0.155    
Total bilirubin ( 20 μmol/L/< 20 μmol /L) 2.087 0.653–6.668 0.207    
Amylase (< 110 IU/L/ 110 IU/L) 1.824 0.372–8.944 0.692    
CA19-9 (< 39 U/mL/ 39 U/mL) 1.812 0.763–4.303 0.175    
Pancreaticojejunostomy (dunking method/duct-to-mucosa) 0.794 0.317–1.986 0.621    
  1. Continuous variables were classified into two groups as follows: The thresholds of body mass index, main pancreatic duct diameter, main pancreatic duct index, intra-abdominal thickness, pancreatic resection margin thickness, and pancreas CT value were determined based on the median value of each parameter. All laboratory data were divided based on the upper or lower limit of normal range of each parameter
  2. POPF postoperative pancreatic fistula, PD pancreatoduodenectomy, ISGPF International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula, CI confidence interval, CT computed tomographic scan, CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9
  3. aThe tumors that were not attached, compressed, or obviously involved the portal and/or superior mesenteric veins on CT
  4. bMeasured as the distance from the internal face of rectus abdominis (linea alba) to the rear wall of the aorta at the level of the umbilicus