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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the modeling and validation sets

From: Establishment of risk prediction model of postoperative pancreatic fistula after pancreatoduodenectomy: 2016 edition of definition and grading system of pancreatic fistula: a single center experience with 223 cases

Variable Modeling set (n = 124) Validation set (n = 99) P value
Gender (%)
 Male 85 (68.5) 67 (67.7) 0.890
 Female 39 (31.5) 32 (32.3)  
Age (years) 60.9 ± 8.7 61.3 ± 6.8 0.786
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.2 ± 3.1 22.5 ± 3.2 0.287
Drinking habit (%)
 Yes 23 (18.5) 26 (26.3) 0.167
 No 101 (81.5) 73 (73.7)  
Smoking habit (%)
 Yes 55 (44.4) 42 (42.4) 0.773
 No 69 (55.6) 57 (57.6)  
Diabetes mellitus (%)
 Yes 28 (22.6) 19 (19.2) 0.538
 No 96 (77.4) 80 (80.8)  
Main pancreatic duct diameter (mm) 3.7 ± 2.5 3.6 ± 2.3 0.506
Margin pancreas thickness (mm) 15.5 ± 3.8 14.8 ± 3.3 0.210
Main pancreatic duct index 0.3 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.2 0.885
Portal vein invasion diagnosisa (%)
 Yes 10 (8.1) 7 (7.1) 0.781
 No 114 (91.9) 92 (92.9)  
Intra-abdominal thicknessb (mm) 70.6 ± 26.6 67.2 ± 24.3 0.352
Pancreas CT value (HU) 38.8 ± 8.5 38.3 ± 9.0 0.710
Preoperative biliary drainage (%)
 Yes 16 (12.9) 9 (9.1) 0.370
 No 108 (87.1) 90 (90.9)  
Preoperative laboratory data
 White blood cell count (109/L) 6.1 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 1.8 0.450
 Platelet count (109/L) 233.4 ± 69.6 241.0 ± 63.7 0.275
 Albumin (g/L) 39.4 ± 4.2 38.8 ± 3.9 0.551
 Total bilirubin (μmol /L) 150.5 ± 130.5 141.7 ± 110.6 0.691
 Amylase (IU/L), median (IQR) 25 (16–42) 27 (19.8–39.95) 0.621
 CA19-9 (U/mL), median (IQR) 82 (35.1–276.8) 101 (27.5–381.3) 0.708
Pancreaticojejunostomy (%)
 Duct-to-mucosa 26 (21.0) 13 (13.1) 0.126
 Dunking method 98 (79.0) 86 (86.9)  
Pancreatic cancerc (%)
 Yes 29 (23.4) 25 (25.3) 0.747
 No 95 (76.6) 74 (74.7)  
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (%)
 2005 ISGPF edition
  Yes 61 (49.2) 43 (43.4) 0.392
  No 63 (50.8) 56 (56.6)  
 2016 ISGPS edition
  Yes 32 (25.8) 23 (23.2) 0.658
  No 92 (74.2) 76 (76.8)  
Surgery-related death (%)
 Yes 5 (4.0) 3 (3.0) 0.970
 No 119 (96.0) 96 (97.0)  
  1. CT computed tomographic scan, IQR interquartile range, CA19-9 carbohydrate antigen 19-9, ISGPF International Study Group of Pancreatic Fistula, ISGPS International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery
  2. aThe tumors that were attached, compressed, or obviously involved in the portal and/or superior mesenteric veins on CT
  3. bMeasured as the distance from the internal face of rectus abdominis (linea alba) to the rear wall of the aorta at the level of the umbilicus
  4. c124 patients in the modeling set: pancreatic cancer 29, cholangiocarcinoma 28, ampulla carcinoma 52, duodenal cancer 10, duodenal papillitis 1, pancreatitis 1, duodenal papilloma 1, pancreatic head neuroendocrine tumor 1, cholangitis 1; 99 patients in the validation set: pancreatic cancer 25, cholangiocarcinoma 15, ampulla carcinoma 46, duodenal cancer 7, pancreatitis 1, intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas (IPMN) 1, pancreatic serous cystadenoma 2, solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas 1, pancreatic mucinous cystadenoma 1