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Table 2 Summary data for studies comparing outcomes between diagnostic biopsy and confirmatory biopsy included for this review

From: Old men with prostate cancer have higher risk of Gleason score upgrading and pathological upstaging after initial diagnosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author (year ) Study characteristic a Patient characteristic
Study region (interval) Study size, n No. Upgrading, n (%) Definition of upgrading (from bGS to pGS) Mean age, years Mean PSA, ng/mL Mean PV, mL bGS Clinical T-stage No. cores obtained, n
Anderson 2015 [32] USA (1991–2001) 646 55 (8.5) ≤ 6 to ≥ 7 NA NA NA ≤ 6 T1c–2a Median 12, IQR 11–12
Dai 2019 [33] USA (2005–2015) 406 85 (20.9) ≤ 6 to ≥ 7 NA NA NA ≤ 6 T1–2 12
Herrera-Caceres 2020 [34] Canada (2006–2018) 726 159 (21.9) ≤ 6 to ≥ 7 NA NA NA ≤ 6 NA Median 12, IQR 10–12
  1. PSA prostate-specific antigen, PV prostate volume, bGS biopsy Gleason score, pGS prostatectomy Gleason score, NA not available, IQR interquartile range
  2. aAll studies were case-control designs