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Table 2 Correlation between preoperative CTC counts and clinicopathological factors

From: Retrograde en bloc resection for non-muscle invasive bladder tumor can reduce the risk of seeding cancer cells into the peripheral circulation

Characteristicsn (%)CTC (\( \overline{\mathrm{x}}\pm \mathrm{s}/\mathrm{ml} \))tp value
Age (year)  − 0.2130.833
< 6011 (52.4)5.64 ± 7.31  
≥ 6010 (47.6)6.40 ± 9.08  
Gender  − 2.6870.019
Male16 (76.2)3.57 ± 4.97  
Female5 (33.8)0.00 ± 0.00  
Smoking history  − 1.7350.099
No9 (42.9)2.67 ± 5.66  
Yes12 (51.1)8.50 ± 8.79  
Pathologic stage  0.7640.454
pTa12 (51.1)7.17 ± 7.31  
pT19 (42.9)4.44 ± 9.04  
Grade (WHO 2014)  − 2.4970.022
LG17 (81.0)4.12 ± 6.42  
HG4 (19.0)14.00 ± 10.07  
Resection method  − 1.3500.193
TURB9 (42.9)3.33 ± 5.83  
RERBT12 (51.1)8.00 ± 9.03  
  1. LG low grade, HG high grade, CTC circulating cancer cell, TURB transurethral resection of the bladder, RERBT retrograde en bloc TURB