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Table 1 Main characteristics of included studies

From: Smokers or non-smokers: who benefits more from immune checkpoint inhibitors in treatment of malignancies? An up-to-date meta-analysis

AuthorYearPhaseCategoryTherapy lineFeatureExp arm (Pts N)Ctr arm (Pts N)PopulationOS
HR95% CI
Borghaei et al.2015IIINSCLC> 1Non-squamousNivolumab (292)Docetaxel (290)Non-smoker (20%)1.020.64–1.16
Smoker (79%)0.700.56–0.86
Brahmer et al2015IIINSCLC> 1SquamousNivolumab (135)Docetaxel (137)Non-smoker (6%)NANA
Smoker (92%)0.590.44–0.80
Fehrenbacher et al.2016IINSCLC> 1Previously treatedAtezolizumab (144)Docetaxel (143)Non-smoker (20%)0.550.24–1.25
Smoker (80%)0.750.54–1.04
Rittmeyer et al.2017IIINSCLC> 1Previously treatedAtezolizumab (613)Docetaxel (612)Non-smoker (17%)0.910.65–1.29
Smoker (83%)0.780.67–0.90
Carbone et al.2017IIINSCLC1Stage IVNivolumab (271)Chemotherapy (270)Non-smoker (11%)1.020.54–1.93
Smoker (89%)1.080.86–1.37
Barlesi et al.2018IIINSCLC> 1Platinum-treated advancedAvelumab (396)Docetaxel (396)Non-smoker (17%)1.690.97–2.95
Smoker (83%)0.830.66–1.04
Mok et al.2019IIINSCLC1PD-L1 positivePembrolizumab (636)Chemotherapy (615)Non-smoker (22%)1.000.73–1.37
Smoker (78%)0.800.60–1.06
Gandhi et al.2018IIINSCLC1MetastaticPembrolizumab+chemotherapy (410)Placebo+chemotherapy (206)Non-smoker (12%)0.230.10–0.54
Smoker (88%)0.540.41–0.71
Antonia et al.2018IIINSCLC> 1Stage IIIDurvalumab+chemoradiotherapy (476)Placebo+chemoradiotherapy (237)Non-smoker (9%)0.350.16–0.76
Smoker (91%)0.720.56–0.92
West et al.2019IIINSCLC1Non-squamousAtezolizumab+chemotherapy (451)Chemotherapy (228)Non-smoker (10%)0.550.26–1.19
Smoker (90%)0.810.65–1.02
Reck et al.2019IIINSCLC> 1Chemotherapy-naive metastaticABCP (400)BCP (400)Non-smoker (20%)0.660.41–1.05
Smoker (80%)0.800.65–0.89
Bellmunt et al.2017IIIUC> 1Advanced second linePembrolizumab (270)Chemotherapy (272)Non-smoker (35%)1.060.72–1.55
Smoker (65%)0.520.24–1.11
Powles et al.2018IIIUC> 1Advanced or metastaticAtezolizumab (467)Chemotherapy (464)Non-smoker (28%)0.800.60–1.06
Smoker (72%)0.870.72–1.04
Ferris et al.2016IIIHNSCC> 1RecurrentNivolumab (240)Standard therapy (121)Non-smoker (19%)0.580.32–1.06
Smoker (77%)0.710.52–0.99
Cohen et al.2019IIIHNSCC> 1Recurrent or metastaticPembrolizumab (247)Standard therapy (248)Non-smoker (27%)0.900.60–1.35
Smoker (73%)0.770.60–0.98
Reck et al.2016IIISCLC1Extensive-stageIpilimumab+chemotherapy (478)Placebo+chemotherapy (476)Light smoker (36%)1.020.80–1.30
Heave smoker (57%)1.090.89–1.32
Govindan et al.2017IIINSCLC1SquamousIpilimumab+chemotherapy (388)Placebo+chemotherapy (361)Light smoker (12%)1.190.71–1.99
Heave smoker (88%)0.880.73–1.05
  1. OS overall survival, CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, NA not available, PD-L1 programmed death ligand 1, Pts patients, Exp experimental, Ctr control, Non-smoker patients who never smoke, Smoker patients who ever/currently smoke, NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer, UC urothelial carcinoma, HNSCC head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma, SCLC small cell lung cancer, ABCP atezolizumab plus bevacizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel, BCP bevacizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel; Standard Therapy standard single-agent systemic therapy (methotrexate, docetaxel, or cetuximab)