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Table 2 Pathologic characteristics and oncological outcomes

From: Impact of previous abdominal surgery on robotic-assisted rectal surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma: a propensity score matching study

Characteristic Overall After match (1:3)
With PAS (N = 35) Without PAS (N = 168) P value With PAS (N = 32) Without PAS (N = 96) P value
N % N % N % N %
Preoperative clinical staging
 Tumor depth      0.9823      0.9270
 T2 2 5.7% 11 6.5%   1 3.1% 5 5.2%  
 T3 27 77.1% 129 76.8%   25 78.1% 74 77.1%  
 T4 6 17.1% 28 16.7%   6 18.8% 17 17.7%  
 Lymph node metastasis      0.2970      0.9345
 N0 11 31.4% 33 19.6%   8 25.0% 26 27.1%  
 N1 15 42.9% 88 52.4%   15 46.9% 46 47.9%  
 N2 9 25.7% 47 28.0%   9 28.1% 24 25.0%  
 AJCC stage (clinical)      0.3444      0.9846
 I 2 5.7% 4 2.4%   1 3.1% 4 4.2%  
 II 7 20.0% 26 15.5%   7 21.9% 21 21.9%  
 III 20 57.1% 120 71.4%   20 62.5% 59 61.5%  
 IV 6 17.1% 18 10.7%   4 12.5% 12 12.5%  
Postoperative pathological outcomes
 Tumor size      0.3634      0.2124
 < 5 cm 35 100.0% 159 94.6%   32 100.0% 92 95.8%  
 ≥ 5 cm 0 0.0% 9 5.4%   0 0.0% 4 4.2%  
Tumor size (cm)
 Median (range) 1.7 (0–4.5) 1.7 (0–8.0) 0.8658 1.8 (0–4.5) 1.5 (0–8.0) 0.4810
 Mean ± SD 1.8 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.7 0.6117 1.9 ± 1.2 1.7 ± 1.7 0.6547
 Tumor depth      0.6850      0.3077
 T0 7 20.0% 47 28.0%   6 18.8% 28 29.2%  
 Tis 0 0.0% 2 1.2%   0 0.0% 2 2.1%  
 T1 3 8.6% 11 6.5%   3 9.4% 8 8.3%  
 T2 9 25.7% 43 25.6%   7 21.9% 26 27.1%  
 T3 16 45.7% 60 35.7%   16 50.0% 29 30.2%  
 T4 0 0.0% 5 3.0%   0 0.0% 3 3.1%  
 Lymph node metastasis      0.8948      0.8281
 N0 27 77.1% 126 75.0%   24 75.0% 72 75.0%  
 N1 7 20.0% 32 19.0%   7 21.9% 18 18.8%  
 N2 1 2.9% 9 5.4%   1 3.1% 5 5.2%  
 N3 0 0.0% 1 0.6%   0 0.0% 1 1.0%  
 AJCC stage (pathologic)      0.5986      0.7447
 0 6 17.1% 45 26.8%   6 18.8% 27 28.1%  
 I 10 28.6% 36 21.4%   9 28.1% 23 24.0%  
 II 8 22.9% 35 20.8%   8 25.0% 16 16.7%  
 III 5 14.3% 32 19.0%   5 15.6% 17 17.7%  
 IV 6 17.1% 20 11.9%   4 12.5% 13 13.5%  
 Down stage of T stage      0.4106      0.4188
 Down stage 23 65.7% 116 69.0%   21 65.6% 72 75.0%  
 Unchanged 12 34.3% 46 27.4%   11 34.4% 23 24.0%  
 Up stage 0 0.0% 6 3.6%   0 0.0% 1 1.0%  
 Down stage of N stage      0.6294      0.7574
 Down stage 21 60.0% 112 66.7%   21 65.6% 57 59.4%  
 Unchanged 13 37.1% 49 29.2%   10 31.3% 34 35.4%  
 Up stage 1 2.9% 7 4.2%   1 3.1% 5 5.2%  
 Down stage of AJCCstage      0.4548      0.8358
 Down stage 19 54.3% 110 65.5%   19 59.4% 62 64.6%  
 Unchanged 15 42.9% 54 32.1%   12 37.5% 31 32.3%  
 Up stage 1 2.9% 4 2.4%   1 3.1% 3 3.1%  
 Tumor regression grade      0.4980      0.3177
 0 7 20.6% 46 28.6%   6 19.4% 27 30.3%  
 1 14 41.2% 68 42.2%   13 41.9% 39 43.8%  
 2 11 32.4% 34 21.1%   10 32.3% 16 17.4%  
 3 2 5.9% 13 8.1%   2 6.5% 8 8.4%  
 Tumor regression      0.4992      0.1747
 Good (0 + 1) 21 61.8% 114 70.8%   19 61.3% 66 74.2%  
 Poor (2 + 3) 13 38.2% 47 29.2%   12 38.7% 23 25.8%  
Harvested lymph node
 Median (range) 10 (2–33) 9 (0–36) 0.7059 10 (2–23) 9 (1–30) 0.2360
 Mean ± SD 10.7 ± 5.8 10.3 ± 5.7 0.6939 11.2 ± 5.8 9.7 ± 5.5 0.2020
Positive lymph node
 Median (range) 0 (0–6) 0 (0–24) 0.6550 0 (0–6) 0 (0–24) 0.7394
 Mean ± SD 0.4 ± 1.1 0.6 ± 2.3 0.3068 0.4 ± 1.2 0.8 ± 3.0 0.3348
Harvested apical node
 Median (range) 2 (0–10) 2 (0–10) 0.6824 2 (0–10) 2 (0–8) 0.9269
 Mean ± SD 2.3 ± 2.1 2.4 ± 2.1 0.7417 2.3 ± 2.1 2.2 ± 1.8 0.7394
Positive apical node
 Median (range) 0 (0–3) 0 (0–2) 0.2219 0 (0–3) 0 (0–2) 0.3176
 Mean ± SD 0.2 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.3 0.2939 0.2 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.4 0.3540
 Vascular invasion      1.0000      0.9158
 No 31 91.2% 143 91.7%   28 90.3% 81 91.0%  
 Yes 3 8.8% 13 8.3%   3 9.7% 8 8.99%  
 Perineural invasion      0.6028      0.8250
 No 29 85.3% 128 81.5%   26 83.9% 74 82.22%  
 Yes 5 14.7% 29 18.5%   5 16.1% 16 17.78%  
Distance of PRM (cm)
 Median (range) 5.0 (1.0–10.0) 5.5 (0.8–58.0) 0.3476 5.0 (1.0–10.0) 5.8 (0.8–58.0) 0.0924
 Mean ± SD 5.2 ± 1.8 6.1 ± 4.9 0.0813 5.2 ± 1.8 7.0 ± 7.5 0.0412
Distance of DRM (cm)
 Median (range) 2.1 (0.1–8.1) 2 (0.1–7.5) 0.7923 2.4 (0.1–8.1) 2.0 (0.1–7.0) 0.5231
 Mean ± SD 2.4 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 0.5 0.6451 2.4 ± 1.9 2.2 ± 1.5 0.4101
Distance of CRM (mm)
 Median (range) 11.5 (2.0–120.0) 12.0 (1.0–120.0) 0.9867 10.0 (2.0–120.0) 22.9 15.0 (1.0–98.0) 0.5309
 Mean ± SD 23.0 ± 29.5 18.9 ± 20.9 0.4994 ± 30.7 20.2 ± 20.5 0.6971
 DRM      0.1383      0.3322
 Free 33 94.3% 166 98.8%   30 93.8% 93 97.4%  
 Positive 2 5.7% 2 1.2%   2 6.3% 3 2.6%  
 CRM      1.0000      0.8828
 Free 34 97.1% 161 97.0%   31 96.9% 93 96.9%  
 Positive 1 2.9% 5 3.0%   1 3.1% 3 3.1%  
 Resection degree of primary tumor      0.6549      0.8224
 R0 33 94.3% 161 95.8%   30 93.8% 91 94.8%  
 R1 2 5.7% 7 4.2%   2 6.3% 5 5.2%  
Oncological outcomes (clinical stages I–III)
 Follow-up periods (months)
 Median (range) 23.1 (8.4–74.6) 28.6 (6.2–87.1) 0.3183 22.5 (8.4–74.6) 30.5 (6.2–87.1) 0.4770
 Mean ± SD 29.0 ± 16.5 32.9 ± 19.3 0.2579 29.4 ± 17.1 33.1 ± 19.7 0.3499
 Post-op relapse      0.9904      0.8943
 No 24 82.8% 124 82.7%   23 82.1% 70 83.3%  
 Yes 5 17.2% 26 17.3%   5 17.9% 14 16.7%  
 Post-op locoregional recurrent      0.5913      0.0828
 No 28 96.6% 146 97.3%   27 96.4% 84 100.0%  
 Yes 1 3.4% 4 2.7%   1 3.6% 0 0.0%  
 Post-op distant metastasis      1.0000      0.7575
 No 25 86.2% 128 85.3%   24 85.7% 70 83.3%  
 Yes 4 13.8% 22 14.7%   4 14.3% 14 16.7%  
 Death      1.0000      0.9377
 No 31 88.6% 150 89.3%   28 87.5% 85 88.5%  
 Yes 4 11.4% 18 10.7%   4 12.5% 11 11.5%  
 DFS (months)
 Median (range) 21.3 (8.4–74.6) 24.4 (2.5–87.1) 0.7826 20.9 (8.4–74.6) 26.7 (2.5–87.1) 0.8103
 Mean ± SD 27.6 ± 16.6 30.1 ± 19.7 0.5297 27.5 ± 16.9 29.8 ± 19.7 0.5773
OS (months)
 Median (range) 23.1 (8.4–74.6) 28.4 (6.4–87.1) 0.4110 22.5 (8.4–74.6) 30.7 (7.0–87.1) 0.4692
 Mean ± SD 29.1 ± 16.8 32.8 ± 19.4 0.3292 29.4 ± 17.1 33.0 ± 19.6 0.3395
  1. PAS previous abdominal surgery, AJCC American Joint Commission on Cancer, SD standard deviation, PRM proximal resection margin, DRM distal resection margin, CRM circumferential resection margin, DFS disease-free survival, OS overall survival