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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Impact of previous abdominal surgery on robotic-assisted rectal surgery in patients with locally advanced rectal adenocarcinoma: a propensity score matching study

Characteristic Overall After match (1:3)
With PAS (N=35) Without PAS (N=168) p value With PAS (N=32) Without PAS (N=96) p value
N % N % N % N %
Age (Median, range) (years) 61.0 (38.0–83.0) 61.0 (28.0–93.0) 0.4270 61.0 (38.0–83.0) 62.5 (31.0–93.0) 0.5986
Gender      0.0006*      0.7964
 Female 22 62.9% 54 32.1%   19 59.4% 55 57.3%  
 Male 13 37.1% 114 67.9%   13 40.6% 41 42.7%  
Tumor distance from anal verge (cm)      0.8960      0.7280
5 (Lower) 19 54.3% 93 55.4%   18 56.3% 54 56.3%  
 6–10 (Middle) 12 34.3% 52 31.0%   10 31.3% 25 26.0%  
 11–15 (Upper) 4 11.4% 23 13.7%   4 12.5% 17 17.7%  
Distance from anal verge (cm)
 Median (range) 5.0 (0.5–15.0) 5.0 (0.5–20.0) 0.7624 5.0 (1.5–15.0) 5.0 (0.5–20.0) 0.8430
 Mean ± SD 6.5±4.0 6.4±4.1 0.8598 6.5±4.0 6.6±4.7 0.9263
Post-op serum CEA level      0.7429      0.7645
 <5 ng/ml 29 90.6% 151 91.5%   27 93.1% 85 91.4%  
 ≥5 ng/ml 3 9.4% 14 8.5%   2 6.9% 8 8.6%  
ASA score      0.9054      0.4656
 2 21 60.0% 102 61.1%   21 65.6% 56 58.3%  
 3 14 40.0% 65 38.9%   11 34.4% 40 41.7%  
BMI kg/m2
 Median (range) 23.6 (18.7–27.5) 23.4 (17.4–37.8) 0.4217 23.5 (18.7–27.5) 22.7 (17.6–30.2) 0.8994
 Mean ± SD 23.4±2.9 24.1±3.5 0.2585 23.1±2.9 23.3±3.0 0.8039
Perioperative outcomes
 Procedure      0.7273      0.8289
 LAR 22 62.9% 103 61.3%   20 62.5% 58 60.4%  
 ISR 12 34.3% 63 37.5%   12 37.5% 37 38.5%  
 APR 1 2.9% 2 1.2%   0 0.0% 1 1.0%  
 Protective Diverting Colostomy      0.2587      0.4444
 Yes 14 41.2% 86 51.8%   13 40.6% 46 48.4%  
 No 20 58.8% 80 48.2%   19 59.4% 49 51.6%  
 Protective Diverting Colostomy in LAR      0.2409      0.2505
 Yes 2 9.1% 23 22.3%   1 5.0% 9 14.8%  
 No 20 90.9% 80 77.7%   19 95.0% 49 85.2%  
Docking Time (minutes)
 Median (range) 3 (3–8) 4 (2–11) 0.0733 3 (3–8) 4 (2–11) 0.0956
 Mean ± SD 3.9±1.3 4.4±1.6 0.1098 3.9±1.3 4.3±1.5 0.2192
Console Time (minutes)
 Median (range) 167.5 (120–240) 187.5 (95–374) 0.0394* 165 (120–240) 175 (95–305) 0.4542
 Mean ± SD 172.9±36.4 194.0±53.3 0.0062* 172.7±37.2 180.3±45.4 0.3974
Operation Time (minutes)
 Median (range) 275 (210–430) 300 (180–855) 0.0748 275 (210–430) 290 (200–620) 0.5943
 Mean ± SD 290.9±50.9 326.2±100.4 0.0035* 290.7±51.3 305.4±84.0 0.2517
Estimated blood loss (mL)
 Median (range) 65 (15–350) 70 (15–1050) 0.3776 50 (15–350) 50 (20–700) 0.9424
 Mean ± SD 88.3 ±71.4 119.6 ±141.8 0.0667 83.1±71.2 85.1±102.8 0.9054
Time of first flatus passage (day)
 Median (range) 2 (1–3) 2 (0–10) 0.5821 2 (1–3) 1 (1–10) 0.5190
 Mean ± SD 1.7±0.7 1.7±1.0 0.8980 1.6±0.7 1.6±1.1 0.8872
Time of resuming soft diet (day)
 Median (range) 4 (2–5) 3 (2–15) 0.7415 4 (2–5) 3 (2–15) 0.6076
 Mean ± SD 3.8±0.8 3.8±1.7 0.2177 3.5±0.7 3.8±1.9 0.2710
Postoperative hospital stay (day)
 Median (range) 7 (5–46) 6 (4–32) 0.0676 7 (5–46) 6 (4–18) 0.1178
 Mean ± SD 8.0±6.8 7.1±3.0 0.4109 8.1±7.1 6.8±2.3 0.3274
Postoperative first day pain score
 Median (range) 3 (0–8) 3 (0–8) 0.8384 3 (0–8) 3 (0–7) 0.8329
 Mean ± SD 3.4±1.9 3.2±1.5 0.6549 3.2±1.7 3.0±1.4 0.5675
  1. *P value < 0.05
  2. PAS previous abdominal surgery, SD standard deviation, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, ASA American Society of Anesthesiologist, BMI body mass index, LAR low anterior resection, ISR intersphincteric resection, APR abdominoperineal resection