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Table 4 Pathologic features and oncologic outcomes in patients with tumor size ≤ 4.0 cm

From: Favorable short-term oncologic outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for small T4 colon cancer: a multicenter comparative study

Variable Open (N = 29) Laparoscopy (N = 88) p value
Tumor size (cm) 3.5 (2–4) 3.4 (0.9–4) 0.208a
Node state N0 7 (24.1) 22 (25.0) 0.926b
N+ 22 (75.9) 66 (75.0)
T stage T4a 26 (89.7) 85 (96.6) 0.161c
T4b 3 (10.3) 3 (3.4)
Angiolymphatic invasion Not identified 18 (62.1) 20 (22.7) < .001b
Present 11 (37.9) 68 (77.3)
Venous invasion Not identified 19 (65.5) 50 (56.8) 0.409b
Present 10 (34.5) 38 (43.2)
Perineural invasion Not identified 7 (24.1) 11 (12.5) 0.146c
Present 22 (75.9) 77 (87.5)
Combined resection No 27 (93.1) 86 (97.7) 0.256c
Yes 2 (6.9) 2 (2.3)
R0 resection rate 29 (100) 88 (100) -
Harvested lymph nodes N = 83 18 (8–60) 25 (7–107) 0.057a
Proximal margin N = 116 8.5 (2–43) 10.1 (1.5–48) 0.198a
Distal margin 5.5 (0–27.5) 7.5 (0.4–50) 0.241a
Radial margin N = 10 1.4 (0.4–2.3) 1.1 (0.1–4) 0.896a
  1. aWilcoxon rank sum test
  2. bChi-square test
  3. cFisher’s exact test
  4. Data are expressed as median (range) for continuous variables and as number (percentage) for categorical variables