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Table 3 Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes in patients with tumor size ≤ 4.0 cm

From: Favorable short-term oncologic outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for small T4 colon cancer: a multicenter comparative study

Variable Open (N = 29) Laparoscopy (N = 88) p value
Age (years) 62.2 ± 12.0 65.1 ± 12.8 0.287a
Gender Male 14 (48.3) 46 (52.3) 0.709c
Female 15 (51.7) 42 (47.7)
BMI (kg/m2) 22.3 ± 3.2 23.9 ± 3.2 0.026a
ASA score 1, 2 28 (96.6) 87 (98.9) 0.436d
3, 4 1 (3.5) 1 (1.1)
Preoperative CEA (ng/ml) 2.4 (0.6–54.9) 3.3 (0.4–138) 0.270b
Location Right 12 (41.4) 40 (45.5) 0.702c
Left 17 (58.6) 48 (54.6)
Operative time (min) 75 (45–505) 148 (85–460) < .001b
Blood loss (ml) 50 (0–1000) 50 (0–530) 0.003b
Transfusion No 27 (93.1) 88 (100) 0.060d
Yes 2 (6.9) 0 (0)
Hospital stay (days) 8 (5–36) 8 (4–31) 0.942b
Postoperative morbidity No 23 (79.3) 70 (79.6) 0.978c
Yes 6 (20.7) 18 (20.5)
Postoperative morbidity type Ileus 1 (16.7) 6 (33.3)  
Urinary retention 0 (0) 2 (11.1)  
Anastomotic leakage 0 (0) 1 (5.6)  
Surgical site infection 3 (50) 4 (22.2)  
Sepsis 0 (0) 1 (5.6)  
Others 2 (33.3) 4 (22.2)  
Clavien–Dindo classification 1, 2 6 (100) 14 (77.8) 0.539d
3 0 (0) 4 (22.2)
Adjuvant chemotherapy No 1 (20.0) 18 (22.9) 1.000c
(N = 77) Yes 4 (80.0) 54 (77.1)
  1. aTwo-sample t test
  2. bWilcoxon rank sum test
  3. cChi-square test
  4. dFisher’s exact test
  5. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (range) for continuous variables and as number (percentage) for categorical variables
  6. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, BMI body mass index, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen