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Table 1 Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes

From: Favorable short-term oncologic outcomes following laparoscopic surgery for small T4 colon cancer: a multicenter comparative study

Variable Open (N = 149) Laparoscopy (N = 300) p value
Age (years) 64.9 ± 12.8 63.6 ± 12.6 0.298a
Gender Male 82 (55.0) 172 (57.3) 0.643c
Female 67 (45.0) 128 (42.7)
BMI (kg/m2) 22.0 ± 3.3 23.7 ± 3.5 < .001a
ASA score 1, 2 128 (85.9) 288 (96) < .001c
3, 4 21 (14.1) 12 (4)
Preoperative CEA (ng/ml) 3.3 (0.5–338) 4.3 (0.4–543) 0.126b
Location Right 64 (43.0) 142 (47.3) 0.380c
Left 85 (57.0) 158 (52.7)
Operative time (min) 141 (43–520) 160 (50–460) 0.007b
Blood loss (ml) 100 (0–4000) 50 (0–700) < .001b
Transfusion No 130 (87.3) 298 (99.3) < .001d
Yes 19 (12.8) 2 (0.7)
Hospital stay (days) 10 (5–45) 8 (4–158) < .001b
Postoperative morbidity No 105 (70.5) 246 (82.0) 0.005c
Yes 44 (29.5) 54 (18.0)
Postoperative morbidity type Ileus 7 (15.9) 15 (27.8)  
Urinary retention 2 (4.6) 5 (9.3)  
Anastomotic leakage 0 (0) 3 (5.6)  
Surgical site infection 17 (38.6) 15 (27.8)  
Pneumonia 5 (11.4) 2 (3.7)  
Sepsis 3 (6.8) 3 (5.6)  
Others 10 (22.7) 11 (20.4)  
Clavien–Dindo classification 1, 2 34 (77.3) 42 (77.8) 0.953c
3 10 (22.7) 12 (22.2)
Adjuvant chemotherapy (N = 329) No 20 (28.6) 39 (15.1) 0.009 c
Yes 50 (71.4) 220 (78.7)
  1. aTwo-sample t test
  2. bWilcoxon rank sum test
  3. cChi-square test
  4. dFisher’s exact test
  5. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or median (range) for continuous variables and as number (percentage) for categorical variables
  6. ASA American Society of Anesthesiologists, BMI body mass index, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen