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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate model and hazard ratio calculations for variables associated with biochemical recurrence

From: Impact of positive surgical margin location and perineural invasion on biochemical recurrence in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy

Variables Univariable cox regression Multivariable cox regression (backward stepwise)
HR (95% CI) p value HR (95% CI) p value
Age (years) 0.993 (0965–1.023) 0.646   
BMI (kg/m2) 0.939 (0.875–1.008) 0.081 0.975 (0.906–1.050) 0.508
Volume(ml) 1.005 (0.995–1.015) 0.349   
TPSA (ng/ml) 1.016 (1.013–1.018) < 0.001 1.012 (1.009–1.016) < 0.001
Surgical approach
 ORP 1.000 (Ref.) 0.979   
 LRP 1.006 (0.665–1.521)  
Gleason score
 < 8 1.000 (Ref.) < 0.001 1.000 (Ref.) < 0.001
 ≥ 8 7.796 (4.702–12.925) 4.629 (2.718–7.883)
pT stage  
 T2 1.000 (Ref.) < 0.001 1.000 (Ref.) < 0.001
 T3 3.239 (2.136–4.911) 2.526 (1.614–3.955)
Surgical margin   < 0.001   < 0.001
 NSM 1.000 (Ref.)   1.000 (Ref.)  
 AM 2.687 (1.443–5.005) 0.002 4.192 (2.185–8.042) < 0.001
 OM 3.147 (1.689–5.862) <0.001 1.501 (0.794–2.838) 0.211
 MM 4.530 (2.702–7.595) <0.001 2.758 (1.559–4.880) < 0.001
Perineural invasion
 No 1.000 (Ref.) < 0.001   0.369
 Yes 2.503 (1.669–3.753) 1.219 (0.791–1.877)